|Habermas IV 125
State/Durkheim/Habermas: in differentiated societies, collective consciousness is embodied in the state. The latter must ensure the legitimacy of the violence it monopolizes itself: "The state is a special body with the task of developing certain ideas that apply to the collective. These ideas differ from other collective ideas in their higher degree of consciousness and reflection. (1)
Habermas: Modern states have converted the sacred foundations of their legitimacy to a communicatively educated, discursively clarified common will in the political public sphere.
Durkheim: A nation is all the more democratic as consideration, reflection and the critical spirit play an increasingly important role in the course of public affairs. (...) Because there are constant communications between them and the state, the state is no longer like an external force for individuals, imposing a completely mechanical drive on them. (2)
Habermas IV 126
Habermas: to the extent that the basic religious consensus dissolves and the state power loses its sacral backing, the unity of the collective can only be established and maintained as a unity of a communication community, namely through a consensus achieved communicatively in the political public sphere.
Habermas: taking into account this conversion of the state to secularized foundations of legitimization as a background, the development of the contract from ritual formalism to the most important instrument of private bourgeois law suggests the idea of a linguization, a communicative liquefaction of the basic religious consensus.
1. E. Durkheim, Lecons de sociologie, Physique des moeurs et du droit. Paris 1969, p. 87; (engl. London 1957).
2. Ibid p.. 123._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
The Rules of Sociological Method - French: Les Règles de la Méthode Sociologique, Paris 1895
Die Regeln der soziologischen Methode Frankfurt/M. 1984
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981