Action Systems/Habermas: Cultural Action Systems: Academia, university jurisprudence and education, religious associations, art business.
Central systems of action that define the structure of a society: capitalist economy, modern state and nuclear family.
Personality systems: Dispositions of action and value orientations that are typical for the methodical way of life and its subjectivist counterpart.
Max Weber can describe modernization as rationalization of society, because the capitalist enterprise is tailored to rational economic action, the modern state institution to rational administrative action, i.e. both to procedural rational action.
Action systems/Habermas: are seen as a special case of living systems. Living systems are understood as open systems, which maintain their existence against an unstable and over-complex environment through exchange processes beyond their borders. All system states fulfil functions with regard to system maintenance. (1)
Organic Systems/Habermas: Problem: The conceptualization of societies cannot be seamlessly connected to those of organic systems, because the structural patterns of action systems, unlike biological patterns, are inaccessible to observation and must be opened up hermeneutically, i.e. from the internal perspective of relatives.
This leads to the fundamental problem for every social theory, how the concept strategies characterized by the terms 'system' and 'lifeworld' can be satisfactorily linked.
1.Talcott Parsons, Some Problems of General Theory, in: J.C. McKinney, E. A. Tiryakian (Eds.), Theoretical Sociology, NY 1970._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981