Dictionary of Arguments

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Habermas III 48
Argument/Toulmin/Habermas: According to Toulmin (1), arguments have the following elements:
1. a problematic statement for which a claim of validity is made (conclusion)
2. the reason (ground) with which this claim is to be established.
3. the ground is won (warrant) by means of a rule (a final rule, a principle, a law, etc.).
4. This is based on evidence of various kinds (backing).
If necessary, the validity claim must be modified or restricted (modifyer).
Habermas III 49
The well-known disciplines of the Aristotelian canon correspond to this: rhetoric deals with argumentation as a process, dialectics with pragmatic procedures and logic with their products.
III 50
Habermas: it turns out, however, that the separation cannot be maintained. (HabermasVsKlein, Wolfgang, See W. Klein, Argumentation and Argument in. Z. f. Litwiss. U. Ling. H, 38/39,1980, p. 9ff).


1.St. Toulmin, R. Rieke, A. Janik, An Introduction to Reasoning, N.Y. 1979, p. 106


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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Toulmin I
St. Toulmin
The Uses of Argument Cambridge 2003

Ha I
J. Habermas
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988

Ha III
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981

Ha IV
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981


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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2018-12-18
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