|Habermas III 48
Argument/Toulmin/Habermas: According to Toulmin (1), arguments have the following elements:
1. a problematic statement for which a claim of validity is made (conclusion)
2. the reason (ground) with which this claim is to be established.
3. the ground is won (warrant) by means of a rule (a final rule, a principle, a law, etc.).
4. This is based on evidence of various kinds (backing).
If necessary, the validity claim must be modified or restricted (modifyer).
Habermas III 49
The well-known disciplines of the Aristotelian canon correspond to this: rhetoric deals with argumentation as a process, dialectics with pragmatic procedures and logic with their products.
Habermas: it turns out, however, that the separation cannot be maintained. (HabermasVsKlein, Wolfgang, See W. Klein, Argumentation and Argument in. Z. f. Litwiss. U. Ling. H, 38/39,1980, p. 9ff).
1.St. Toulmin, R. Rieke, A. Janik, An Introduction to Reasoning, N.Y. 1979, p. 106_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
The Uses of Argument Cambridge 2003
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981