Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments

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Anthropic Principle: the justification of the observability of the universe by properties that correspond to the observer. In this form, the principle is not about the existence of the universe and the observer, but about necessary properties.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

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Alfred Russell Wallace on Anthropic Principle - Dictionary of Arguments

Gould I 140
Anthropic Principle/Predecessors/Wallace/Gould: the thesis that the earth's history to date is only a preparation for the appearance of humans is highly doubtful.
GouldVs: just as well the human could exist by a stupid coincidence, completely unpredictable and yet embody something new and powerful.
Alfred Russell Wallace: was a metaphysical idealist towards the end of his life: he argued that a pre-existent mind was connected to a body capable of using it. (1)
I 141
Gould: the modern version of this theory dispenses with predetermination in favor of predictability. It gives up the idea that the first bacterium was already endowed with the germ of the human mind and that some mental power supervised organic evolution in order to fill the first body worthy of it with mind.
Instead, it (erroneously) takes the view that the full development process is producing ever more successful designs that compete with earlier ones.
In their opinion, there are few opportunities for development, and if it were repeated again, it would take place in the same way. There is only one way to e.g. sort out the best swimmers, that's what you would imagine as a kind of pawl, and not as currents of water on a wide slope. A type of locking device in which each development step takes the process one step forward and is a necessary prerequisite for the next.
I 143
GouldVs: if this were the case, fossil finds would have to demonstrate a more directed development. The fact that this is not the case, is the most impressive proof against this thesis of the pawl. ((s) Gould thesis: Progress is not irreversible.)

1. A. R. Wallace (1895). Natural Selection and Tropical Nature. London: MacMillan.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

WallaceAR I
Alfred Russell Wallace
The Malay Archipelago London 2016

Gould I
Stephen Jay Gould
The Panda’s Thumb. More Reflections in Natural History, New York 1980
German Edition:
Der Daumen des Panda Frankfurt 2009

Gould II
Stephen Jay Gould
Hen’s Teeth and Horse’s Toes. Further Reflections in Natural History, New York 1983
German Edition:
Wie das Zebra zu seinen Streifen kommt Frankfurt 1991

Gould III
Stephen Jay Gould
Full House. The Spread of Excellence from Plato to Darwin, New York 1996
German Edition:
Illusion Fortschritt Frankfurt 2004

Gould IV
Stephen Jay Gould
The Flamingo’s Smile. Reflections in Natural History, New York 1985
German Edition:
Das Lächeln des Flamingos Basel 1989

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date