Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments


Screenshot Tabelle Begriffe

Categories: categories are basic concepts for classifying the objects of a knowledge domain into different groups or hierarchies. In philosophy, the category systems of different authors can differ considerably. Concepts which are not suitable for classifying are transcendentals, e.g. the concept of similarity. However, these concepts are again applicable to categorized objects.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Item Summary Meta data
Lyons I 231
Complex categories/Categorial Grammar/Bar-Hillel/Lyons: For example, Adverbs: are expressed by two such fractions one above the other, with an arrow pointing to the left between them.



I 232
Discontinuous/interrupted constituents: (see above: example: call up) cannot be treated with this.
Notation: instead of fractions we write:

E.g. Verb run (∑n <)

E.g. Adjective poor (nn ›)

E.g. Adverb away {(∑n ‹)(∑n ‹) ‹‹}.

Category Analysis/Constituent Structure: example

Poor John ran away

(nn ›) . n . (∑n ‹) {(∑n ‹)(∑n ‹) ‹‹}.

Shortening: on this level there are three possibilities;:
a) shorten poor with John
b) John with ran
c) ran with away

E.g. b) (nn ›) . ∑. (∑n <) {(∑n ‹)(∑n ‹) ‹‹}.

I 233
a) here we get on the next level:

(nn ›) . (∑n ‹) . (∑n ‹) {(∑n ‹)(∑n ‹) ‹‹}.

Then there are two ways to analyze the sentence without rest, we have to shorten ran with away, so

(2) n . (∑n ‹)

and finally

(3) ∑.

Thereby, the order is not important.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Bar-Hillel I
Yehoshua Bar-Hillel
Aspects of Language: Essays and Lectures on Philosophy of Language, Linguistic Philosophy and Methodology of Linguistics Jerusaelm 1970

John Lyons
Semantics Cambridge, MA 1977

Lyons I
John Lyons
Introduction to Theoretical Lingustics, Cambridge/MA 1968
German Edition:
Einführung in die moderne Linguistik München 1995

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> Counter arguments in relation to Categories

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2020-02-27
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