Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments

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I 205
Cohesion/Linguistics/Word/Sentence/Lyons: here we have to consider two criteria:
1. positional mobility
2. non-separability. (inner stability) Both are independent of each other!
Positional mobility: e.g.

the-boy-s – walk-ed – slow-ly – up – the – hill
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Further positioning options: 67123458910 or 8910 6745123
((s) This shows that certain units can be repositioned in a sentence, but these units themselves cannot be torn apart. These units can then be called words).
I 207
Lyons: this criterion is more prevalent in languages with free word order than in other languages.
N.B.: positional mobility and inner stability are independent of each other!
Mobility/Lyons: to my knowledge no language has been found yet where the individual units of the word are freely interchangeable e.g. "girl-the-s en-have-be-eat-ing s-apple".
"Free order"/Lyons: seems to occur rather at the "higher" levels (word, sentence).
N.B.: but even at the lower levels it would not only be logically conceivable, it would also define the word no less clearly
2. Inner Stability/non-separability/Lyons: the independence from mobility is shown as follows: for example, the article "the" cannot be defined by positional mobility, because it cannot be moved away from the noun.
I 208
Different in Swedish, Bulgarian Romanian, Macedonian: here it is appended at the end. Example Romanian: "lup">"wolf", "lupul">"the wolf". Thus, the article appears in English, French and German rather like a word.
Separability: the sequence e.g. the - boy can be separated.
((s)Vs: but "lup" can also stand without "ul", but probably not "ul" without "lup", But: only if "ul" could not be appended to any word other than "lup", one could say that it is less separable than the - boy).
LyonsVs(s): this is not the point: for example, adjectives can be inserted between "the" and" boy".
Article/Word/Lyons: that only the first, not the second criterion can be applied to the article in English, implies that it is not a word in its entirety.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

John Lyons
Semantics Cambridge, MA 1977

Lyons I
John Lyons
Introduction to Theoretical Lingustics, Cambridge/MA 1968
German Edition:
Einführung in die moderne Linguistik München 1995

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2020-06-03
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