|Word: a structure separated by spaces from other words within a language. In general, words are formed by one or more characters which are attached to one another. Whole words can in turn be interpreted as signs. In human languages, the elements of the words are letters; in computer languages, other symbols are used within words. See also concepts, expressions, terms, language, characters, symbols, subsentential, meaning._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
|Lyons I 200
Lexeme/Linguistics/Lyons: in this (abstract) use we determined above that e. g."singing" is only a form of another word, while "singer" is a word of its own.
Modern LinguisticsVs: neglects this abstract form. e.g.:
BloomfieldVsTradition: the school grammar is inaccurate because it describes units such as e.g. book, books, or e.g. do, does, did, as different forms of the same word.
LyonsVsBloomfield: however, is inaccurate in that it is still up to us how we define "word".
Lexeme/Lyons: let's introduce the lexeme here as the more abstract form of the word (neither phonological, nor grammatical). These abstract units, according to the syntactic rules, are present in different forms of flexion.
Lexeme/Spelling/Lyons: with capital letters e.g. CUT.
Lyons I 204
Definition Word/Bloomfield/Lyons: (most famous modern definition): the word is the "smallest free form".
Definition Bound Form/Bloomfield/Lyons: Shapes that never appear alone as whole utterances.
Definition Free Form: a form that can occur alone as an expression.
Definition Smallest Free Form/Bloomfield: any free form that does not contain any part of its own. (= word). ((s)Vs: Problem: then unacceptable is not a word, because acceptable is a word).
LyonsVsBloomfield: this applies to phonological rather than grammatical words.
Bloomfield: did not distinguish clearly between grammatical and phonological words.
BloomfieldVsBloomfield/Lyons: he himself recognised that some words are not covered by his definition, such as "the" and "a" (indefinite article). This is because they hardly ever appear as independent utterances.
Solution/Bloomfield: additional criterion: treat "the" and "a" as "this" and "that". These occur sometimes freely ((s) in answers) and are in the same environment within the sentence.
LyonsVsBloomfield: the definition has been accepted by many, but it does not serve the main purpose of the grammatical description to create sentences ((s) rules?) from which actual and possible expressions can be derived. All questions of classification must be subordinated to this objective._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Language New York 1945
Semantics Cambridge, MA 1977
Introduction to Theoretical Lingustics, Cambridge/MA 1968
Einführung in die moderne Linguistik München 1995