|Kelly I 2103
Innovation/Ideas/Kelly: the more specific universal ideas become, the more they lose their inevitability.
Plagiarism/Doublettes/Repetition/Probability/Kelly: After Rowling had launched Harry Potter with great success in 1997, she successfully fought off the complaint of an American author who 13 years earlier had published a series of children's books about a Larry Potter, an orphan boy wearing glasses.
In 1990, Neil Gaiman wrote a comic book about a dark-haired English boy who, on his 12th birthday, learns that he is a magician and receives an owl as a gift from a magical visitor.
Or think of a story by Jane Yolen from 1991 about Henry, a boy who attends a magical school for young wizards and has to overthrow an evil wizard. Then there is The Secret of Platform 13, released in 1994, which offers a gate on a platform to a magical underworld.
There are many good reasons to believe J. K. Rowling when she claims that she has not read any of these books (for example, very few of the Muggle books have been printed and almost none of them have been sold; and Gaiman's teenage boy comics usually do not appeal to single mothers), and many other reasons to accept the fact that these ideas have arisen simultaneously in spontaneous creation. (1)
Cultural Innovations/Kelly: the archaeologist John Troeng listed 53 prehistoric innovations, beyond agriculture, which not only arose two but three times in three different regions of the world, in Africa, Western Eurasia and Asia with Australia. 22 of them also appeared in America. (2)
Kelly: the order of these innovations also coincided with a correlation of 0.93 for three regions and 0.85 for all four regions.
Robert K. Merton: Thesis: Inventions become almost inevitable when the necessary types of knowledge and tools come together. (3)
Kelly: tis is true even for extremely complex inventions today.
Technological development/Kelly: Mobile phones do not make copper cables a little superfluous, but even lead to the construction of new lines, as users demand higher bandwidths.
Genetically modified seed/Amish/Kelly: the Amish use genetically modified seeds to maintain their ancestral life form without being in debt. They do not express it in these words, but they made it clear that they see the seeds as appropriate technology for their family farms.
1. “Harry Potter Influences and Analogues.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Harry_Potter_influences_and_analogues&oldid=330124521.
2. John Troeng. (1993) Worldwide Chronology of Fift y-three Innovations. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International.
3. Robert K. Merton. (1973) The Sociology of Science: Theoretical and Empirical Investigations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, p. 371._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
What Technology Wants New York 2011