Evolution/Kelly: "random" mutations are often not free of tendencies: Variation is determined by geometry and physics. More importantly, they are formed by inherent recurring patterns of self-organization.
Stephen Jay Gould/Kelly: represented the thesis of the omnipresent contingency in evolution, against a directionality, e. g. towards the emergence of the human being. (1)
KellyVsGould: later investigations revealed that the Burgess slate showed less diversity of life forms than Gould assumed in Gould's thesis. In this way, the possibility of a convergent evolution becomes more visible again.
Evolution/Kelly: its third mainstay is structural inevitability. For example, a poison sting used for defense purposes has been created at least twelve times in evolution. The reason for this is not a common history, but a common pattern (>self-organization).
1. Stephen Jay Gould. (1989) Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and Nature of History. New York: W. W. Norton, p. 320._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
What Technology Wants New York 2011