Socialisation/Rawls: Thesis: First of all, the family acts as a community in which the child acquires trust and adapts his or her behaviour to initially misunderstood authorities. The perception of the unconditional love of parents helps the child to accept incomprehensible boundaries. (See Trust/Rawls, Authority/Rawls).
Authority/Child/Development/Rawls: The child's sense of authority then consists of being dispositioned to certain behaviors, without orientation towards rewards or punishments, following certain principles that may seem arbitrary to the child. It then wants to act in accordance with the powerful people it loves and trusts. It concludes that they show a behavior that characterizes a person the child wants to become itself.
Societal roles/Rawls: the virtues of a good daughter or a good son are given an understanding of by the expectations of the parents, demonstrated by agreement and rejection. This also applies to neighborhoods, school and play communities.
Ultimately, a person acquires his or her place in society in this way. The roles that the person acquires are those of a good spouse, a good friend, citizen, and so on. Understanding grows and so does the number of ideals that require increasing intellectual examination. Ultimately, this leads to the development of principles.
Ideals/Rawls: are explained by the objectives and purposes of the community to which the role played by a person belongs. Over time, the person acquires an idea of the overall system. It understands the roles and points of view of others.
Socialization: depends on the acquisition of a person's intellectual abilities in different roles. This is quite complex. (For the following see John Flavell, The Development of Role-Taking and Communication Skills in Children (New York, 1968), pp. 208-211; G. H. Mead, Self and Society (Chicago, 1934), pp. 135-164.)
Perspective: 1. we must recognize that the other's points of view differ from our own.
2. We must recognise that therefore they have other needs. 3. We must learn to recognize this information from their behavior. 4. We need to identify the characteristics of individual perspectives in order to understand how others control their world of actions and intentions. Without this we cannot take the place of others. 5. In the end, we still have to adapt our own behaviour to these findings.
Child development: all these points cannot be expected of the child at first. (See Roger Brown, Social Psychology, pp. 239-244.)
Problem: the abovementioned skills can also benefit a completely manipulative person. So why is it that we are bound by friendships and mutual trust? This results from experience in relation to the behaviour of others over time.
Principles: over time, a person passes through many different social roles and acquires an intellectual understanding of these roles and functions, which manifest themselves in abstract principles that the person accepts and can apply to himself or herself and others. (See Principles/Rawls)._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
A Theory of Justice: Original Edition Oxford 2005