Political Economy/Habermas: In the 18th century, political economy competed with rational natural law and worked out the independence of a system of action held together by functions rather than primarily by norms. (1)
Political economy/natural law/Habermas: while modern doctrines of natural law could neglect the autonomy of a functionally stabilized bourgeois society from the rationally constructed state, the classics of political economy tried to prove that the system imperatives basically harmonized with the basic norms of a community that guarantee freedom and justice.
MarxVsPolitical Economy/Habermas: In the form of a critique of the political economy, Marx has destroyed this illusion with practical consequences; he has shown that the laws of capitalist goods production have the latent function of maintaining a class structure that mocks bourgeois ideals. Marx devaluates the world of the capitalist carrier layers, which interprets itself in rational natural law and in general in the ideals of bourgeois culture, into a socio-cultural superstructure. With the image of basis and superstructure, he also expresses the methodical demand to exchange the internal perspective of the lifeworld for an observer perspective from which the a tergo system imperatives of the independent economy influencing the bourgeois lifeworld can be grasped. Only in a socialist society could, according to Marx, the ban imposed by the system on the world be broken, could the dependence of the superstructure be dissolved from the basis.
1. F. Jonas, Was heißt ökonomische Theorie? In: Schmollers, Jb, 78, 1958; H. Neuendorff, Der Begriff des Interesses, Frankfurt, 1973._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981