Aristocracy/society/freedom/justice/efficiency/Santayana/Rawls: from the point of view of the Natural Aristocracy, no attempt is made to correct accidental social inequalities other than what is demanded of equal opportunities. However, the advantages of the gifted are limited in a way that the less well-off benefit. The aristocratic ideal is applied to a (at least legally) open system. The situation of the better-offs is seen as only fair, however, that if the better-offs were to have less, the poorer ones would also achieve less as a result. (See G. Santayana, Reason and Society, New York, 1905, pp. 109f.)
Rawls: the system of natural aristocracy is unstable, like that of liberal equality.
Solution/Rawls: we need democratic equality in order to be able to deal with instabilities._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
A Theory of Justice: Original Edition Oxford 2005