Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Metaphor: a metaphor is the transmission of a linguistic expression into a different context than that in which it was expected. The expectation results from the frequency of previous uses in certain contexts. Through the transmission an expression, which is actually expected at this place in the speech, is replaced. The condition for replacement is a certain similarity between the characteristics of the old and the new expression required for understanding. The improbability of the appearance of the new expression is a condition for the rhetorical effect of the metaphor.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Ray Jackendoff on Metaphors - Dictionary of Arguments

Deacon I 120
Metaphors/Jackendoff/Deacon: Jackendoff (1992(1), 1994(2)) has suggested that spatial metaphors such as "higher truth", "further developed", "remotely related" are the result of innate cognitive concepts.
I 121
DeaconVsJackendoff: if we assume an evolutionary process of the common evolution of language and brain, we have an explanation that can dispense with fixed wiring in the brain. See >color words/Deacon
. This is what I call social universals or language universals: for example the same grouping and opposition of colour contrasts in people all over the world. It is about trends in the grouping of perceptions, behaviour and feelings. These common tendencies are non-genetic! It is social evolution. These linguistic universals are only statistical, but supported by millions of speakers over tens of thousands of years. Deviations are short-lived.
Innate/Deacon: one does not have to assume congenital structures in order to explain this consistency.
>Colour words.

(1) Jackendoff, Ray (1992). Languages of the Mind: Essays on Mental Representation. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.
(2) Jackendoff, Ray (1994). Patterns in the mind: Language and human nature. New York: Basic Books.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Jackendoff I
Ray Jackendoff
Semantics and Cognition Cambridge, MA 1985

Dea I
T. W. Deacon
The Symbolic Species: The Co-evolution of language and the Brain New York 1998

Dea II
Terrence W. Deacon
Incomplete Nature: How Mind Emerged from Matter New York 2013

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> Counter arguments in relation to Metaphors

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