|Texts: A text is a written or printed piece of language-based communication, ranging from individual words to longer passages or documents, conveying information, ideas, or stories. See also Language, Writing, Information, Communication, Meaning, Words, Word meaning, Sentence meanging, Literature, Culture, Cultural transmission._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Michel Foucault on Texts - Dictionary of Arguments
Analysis of the statement: takes an effect of the rarity into consideration.
Analysis of the discourse: under the double sign of totality and profusion.
Def Text/Foucault: in place of the diversity of the things said, we place a kind of large uniform text t, which has never been articulated and which for the first time brings to light what humans not only "want to say" in their words and texts, their discourses and writings, but in the institutions, practices, techniques, and manufactured objects.
Profusion: the statements appear to exist in profusion because they all refer to the "text" alone and because it alone constitutes their truth.
Discourse: since this first and last meaning (text) swirls through, divides the appearing, every discourse bears the power in itself to say something different than he said. Plurality of meaning. Wealth, fullness.
Analysis of the statements and the discursive formations: opens a completely opposite direction: the principle, according to which only the significant totalities could appear, the statements. Law of rarity.
Law of rarity: principle that not everything has been said ever. Compared to the possibilities, little has been said at all. Principle of emptiness in the field of language.
Discursive formation: not a developing totality, but a distribution of gaps.
Text/Statements: there is no text below the statements. One does not analyze statements as something that would have taken the place of other statements. Therefore also no profusion.
Value of the statements: not defined by the truth, not by the presence of a secret content, but it characterizes its place, its ability to exchange, its possibility of transformation.
The question arises of power. The discourse is no longer an insignificant treasure, but a finite, limited, desirable, useful good. Object of a fight.
Subjectivity: unfolds withdrawn from history, below the events a different, own story, which incessantly and unceasingly takes up the past. Evolution of mentalities.
Analysis of the statements: tries to get rid of this topic. It wants to analyze the statements in an externality that restores pure scatter.
This presupposes that the field of statements is not described as a translation of operations or processes that take place elsewhere (in thought or in the unconscious). Not as a result or trace of something else, but as an autonomous practical area.
This requires further that the field is not related to an individual subject.
Analysis of the statements: thus takes place without reference to a Cogito. The statements are considered in the persistence that is their own.
Additivity: the mathematical texts do not add up as religious texts or the acts of jurisprudence. Today's medical observations form a corpus that does not obey the same compositional laws as the collection of cases in the eighteenth century. Modern mathematics does not accumulate their statements according to the same model as Euclidean geometry.
Positivity/Foucault: denotes a knot after all, it does not mean to establish a rationality or a teleology.
>Teleology, >Rationality._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Les mots et les choses: Une archéologie des sciences humaines , Paris 1966 - The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences, New York 1970
Die Ordnung der Dinge. Eine Archäologie der Humanwissenschaften Frankfurt/M. 1994
l’Archéologie du savoir, Paris 1969
Archäologie des Wissens Frankfurt/M. 1981