Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Systems, philosophy of science: systems are compilations of rules for the formation of statements on a previously defined subject domain. Apart from the - usually recursive - rules for the combination of expressions or signs, the specification of the vocabulary or sign set of the system is also required. See also axioms, axiom systems, theories, strength of theories, expressiveness, rules, order, recursion, models, structure, system theory.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Ernst Mayr on Systems - Dictionary of Arguments

I 202
The 1930s: drastic restructuring. New: Monera (prokaryotes): Bacteria and their relatives are fundamentally different from eukaryotes.
From the origin of life (before approx. 3.8 billion years ago) up to about 1.8 billion years ago, there were exclusively prokaryotes.
Fossils: the earliest evidence of multicellular organisms is approximately 670 million years old.

Superior Kingdom Prokaryota (Monera)
Kingdom Eubacteria
Kingdom Archaebacteria

Superior Kingdom Eukaryota
Kingdom Archaezoa
Kingdom Protozoa
Kingdom Chromista
Kingdom Metaphyta (Plants)
Kingdom Fungi
Kingdom Metazoa (Animals)

, >Order/Mayr, >Evolution, >Species.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Mayr I
Ernst Mayr
This is Biology, Cambridge/MA 1997
German Edition:
Das ist Biologie Heidelberg 1998

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