|Causality: causality is the relation between two (separate) entities, whereby a state change of the one entity causes the state of the other entity to change. Nowadays it is assumed that an energy transfer is crucial for talking about a causal link.|
D. Hume was the first to consistently deny the observability of cause and effect. (David Hume Eine Untersuchung über den menschlichen Verstand, Hamburg, 1993, p. 95).
_____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.
Ernst Mayr on Causality - Dictionary of Arguments
Causality/Mayr: most scientists assume that there is a historical and causal continuity for all phenomena in the material universe.
Cause/Biology: It can be difficult or even impossible to pinpoint the exact cause in an interaction of complex systems.
>Cause, >Effect, >Causal explanation, >Single-case causation.
Strict causality can usually be identified by retrospectively looking at the option chosen at each step of the action chain. In retrospect, even randomly chosen components can be seen as causal.
Causality/Mayr: especially for animals strictly causal sequences can be proven!
>Animals, >Behavior._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
This is Biology, Cambridge/MA 1997
Das ist Biologie Heidelberg 1998