Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Brain states: In philosophy, "brain state" refers to the specific configuration and activity of neurons and synapses at a given moment, corresponding to mental experiences and functions. See also Brain, Thinking, Consciousness, Experiences.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Ernst Mayr on Brain/Brain State - Dictionary of Arguments

I 112
Brain/Mayr: the human brain acquired its still existing skills about 100,000 years ago.
All the achievements we are looking back at today were made with a brain that was not developed for them by the selection!
Three brain regions:
1) For reflexes ("closed programs").
2) Information intake ("open programs"): languages, norms, behavior.
What was once learned is difficult to forget; "simple coinage".
3) Regions are not yet defined; "memory", "storage".
I 309
Brain/Evolution/Mayr: Australopithecus: 400-500 cm³ ((like a anthroid ape) Homo erectus 750-1250 significantly larger brains only in the last 150,000 years.
Language/Animals/Mayr: There is no language among animals. Their communication systems consist in the exchange of signals. There are no syntax and grammar.
, >Animal language, >Signals, >Signal language,
>Grammar, >Syntax.
I 310
Language/brain: could the absence of language be a reason why the Neandertals did not exploit their brain better?
Language: evolved from about 300,000 - 200,000 years ago in small groups of hunters and collectors due to a selection advantage. Good location for brain enlargement.
>Language, >Language evolution, >Thinking without language.
I 311
Brain: a factor that led to a halt in brain development was perhaps the enlargement of the group.
In larger groups, the reproductive superiority of a better-equipped leader is lower, while those with smaller brains enjoy better protection, longer life and greater reproductive success.
Stagnation: social integration of people contributed enormously to the evolution of culture, but may have initiated a period of stagnation in the evolution of the genome.
Mind: conceptual confusion: false limitation to the mental activities of humans.
>Mind, >Thinking, >Humans, >Intentionality, >Action.
Animal/Mind: it has been shown that there is no categorial difference between the mental activities of certain animals (elephants, dogs, whales, primates, parrots) and those of humans.
>Animals, >Animal language.
I 312
Consciousness/Animal: the same applies to the consciousness, a basic version of which is even to be found in invertebrates and possibly protozoa.
Mind/Mayr: there was simply no sudden emergence of the mind.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Mayr I
Ernst Mayr
This is Biology, Cambridge/MA 1997
German Edition:
Das ist Biologie Heidelberg 1998

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