Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Order, philosophy: order is the division of a subject area by distinctions or the highlighting of certain differences as opposed to other differences. The resulting order can be one-dimensional or multi-dimensional, i.e. linear or spatial. Examples are family trees, lexicons, lists, alphabets. It may be that only an order makes certain characteristics visible, e.g. contour lines. Ordering spaces may be more than three-dimensional, e.g. in the attribution of temperatures to color-determined objects. See also conceptual space, hierarchies, distinctness, indistinguishability, stratification, identification, individuation, specification.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Konrad Lorenz on Order - Dictionary of Arguments

Lorenz I XIII
1. Anonymous flocks, free of aggression, but also free of personal acquaintance.
2. Family life of the night-rowers, among others. Birds: clan only built on a local structure of the territories to be defended.
3. Strange large family of rats, whose members do not recognize each other personally, but through the smell of the clan, and behave in an exemplary social manner. Hostile to other clans.
4. Social order: through the bond of personal love and friendship prevented from mutual damage: e.g. greyleg goose.
I 191
Definition flock/Animal/Lorenz: a flock is not a coincidental accumulation, but individuals responding to each other. Reciprocal triggering of attention.
This is why walking in the same direction is characteristic of the flocks.
I 192
Strangely enough, it is not clear what the purpose is of sticking together in fish, birds, and many mammals.
Disadvantages: difficulty to procure food for so many animals, impossibility of concealment,...
I 193
...increased susceptibility to parasites.
Lorenz: one has only found starved single animals regularly under sleeping trees every morning.
I 195
Advantages: the predators are unable to concentrate on a goal.
Interestingly, you can even experience the fact that you have to concentrate on a particular animal to catch one at all!
The other bird, which seems to be easier to handle, is almost never caught because you have not followed its movements in the previous seconds. Surprisingly, one often picks between two equally appealing goals.
I 196
If the presence of an enemy is suspected, flocks gather closer together.
I 207
Marriage/animal/birds/Lorenz: in many birds, the partners do not place any importance on being together.
I 208
Each animal defends its territory exclusively against its conspecific of the same sex.
I 219
Society/Animals/Lorenz: 3. Form: a held together community through aggression directed outwardly.
I 220
Bees, termites, ants, for example, recognize each other by the smell of their stick. They are extremely aggressive against strangers.
I 231
Definition Group/Lorenz: a group is a community that is held together by a bond of personal ties.
I 232
Individual reactions of single members.
Real group formation is independent of the location. (Whereas in many species of animals a completely altered behavior can be observed in the case of transplantation from the place of origin, as well as in the case of conspecifics, they often fail to recognize one another).
I 233
Group/Animals/Lorenz: In group-forming species, the linkage between partners is initiated differently: the future partners are more brittle to each other.
I 236
E.g. Cichlid: the cichlid displays sharply passing aggression gestures towards the partner.
>Psychological theories on Aggression.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Lorenz I
K. Lorenz
Das sogenannte Böse Wien 1963

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