Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Forces: A. In physics, a force is an influence that can change an object's velocity, i.e., to accelerate. Forces are vector quantities, meaning they have both magnitude and direction. - B. In philosophy the discussion ist often about the assertive force. Gottlob Frege argued that assertive force is an essential part of the meaning of a sentence, but that it is distinct from the truth conditions of the sentence. The truth conditions of a sentence determine whether it is true or false, while the assertive force determines what the speaker is doing by uttering the sentence. See also Truth conditions, Meaning, Assertions, Speech acts.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

G.W.F. Hegel on Forces - Dictionary of Arguments

Gadamer I 209
Forces/Effect/History/Hegel/Gadamer: Hegel was absolutely right when he dialectically developed the inner affiliation of force and utterance. On the other hand, however, it is precisely in this dialectic that the force is more than its utterance. It belongs to the possibility of effect par excellence, that is, it is not only the cause of a certain effect, but the ability to evoke such an effect wherever it is triggered. So its way of being is different from that of effect.
, >History/Hegel, >World History/Hegel, >World Spirit/Hegel, >Progress/Hegel.
It has the mode of "queuing" - a word that comes up because it apparently expresses precisely the force's "being by itself" against the indeterminacy of what it may express itself in. From this it follows that force is not recognizable or measurable from the utterances, but can only be experienced in the manner of an inner being.
Effect: Observation of an effect always makes only the cause, not the force, accessible, if otherwise force is an inner surplus over the cause belonging to the effect. This surplus of which one is aware in the causer can certainly also be experienced in terms of its effect, in the resistance, insofar as the resistance is itself an expression of force. But even then it is an inner being in which force is experienced. Being within is the way of experiencing force, because force by its very nature refers to itself. In his "Phenomenology of the Spirit" Hegel convincingly demonstrated the dialectical suspension of the idea of force into the infinity of life, which refers to itself and is inherent in it.(1) >Forces/Ranke.
Gadamer I 210
Hegel/Gadamer: Here (...) the truth of the dialectic of forces revealed by Hegel is shown(2). The resistance that the free force finds is itself out of freedom. The necessity at issue here is the power of the traditional and the counteracting others, which is given to every use of free activity. By excluding many things as impossible, it limits action to what is possible, i.e. which is open. Necessity is itself out of freedom and is itself conditioned by the freedom that relies on it. Logically, it is a matter of hypothetical necessity (the ex hypotheseös anagkaion), in terms of content a mode of being not of nature but of historical being. What has become is not easy to overturn.

1. Hegel, Phänomenologie des Geistes, S. 120ff. (Hoffmeister).
2. Hegel, Enzyklopädie S 136f., ebenso Phänomenologie (Hoffmeister) S. 105ff.; Logik (Lasson) S. 144ff.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Gadamer I
Hans-Georg Gadamer
Wahrheit und Methode. Grundzüge einer philosophischen Hermeneutik 7. durchgesehene Auflage Tübingen 1960/2010

Gadamer II
H. G. Gadamer
The Relevance of the Beautiful, London 1986
German Edition:
Die Aktualität des Schönen: Kunst als Spiel, Symbol und Fest Stuttgart 1977

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