Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Knowledge: Knowledge is the awareness or understanding of something. It can be acquired through experience, or education. Knowledge can be factual, procedural, or conceptual. See also Propositional knowledge, Knowledge how.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Richard Mervyn Hare on Knowledge - Dictionary of Arguments

II 142
Knowledge/Saying/Ryle: it may be that we know something without being able to say what we know. E.g. how a particular word is used, or a particular dance is danced.
HenleVsRyle: but this should not be extended to speech situations.
, >Communication.
II 143
It is by no means clear that one can always know how a word is used, even if one cannot say how it is used.
Knowledge/Saying/HareVsHenle: in language, however, this is perhaps clearer than anywhere else.
E.g. if we explain the use of an expression, we do not have to use it ourselves. Consequently, we can fully know its use in all contexts, even without being able to say how it is needed.
For example, a child may have learned the use of the word "father", and uses it correctly, but perhaps cannot tell how it is used because it has not yet learned the use of "to mean"!
>Explanation, >Use, >Meaning (Intending).
Henle confuses the ability "to decide for logical reasons" whether a statement is true with the ability to use the expression "the statement is logically true".
This is a confusion of mention/use (doing without knowledge).
Hare: anyone who does not know how to use the term "logical true" could do the former, but not the latter.
II 143
Menon/Socrates: question: what is the good? Menon: how can you look for something if you do not know what you are looking for, and when you have found it, how do you know it is what you were looking for? (Knowledge/saying).
II 151
Socrates: if we already knew, we would not have asked the first question. So philosophizing can never begin, or it can never lead to a conclusion.
Solution/Hare: the solution lies in the distinction between knowing how a dance is danced and the ability to also tell how it is danced. Before beginning the investigation, we can do the former but not the latter. We could start because we could do the former all the time.
VsMenon: you already know what the good is, i.e. you can pick it out.
>Knowledge, >Knowing how.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Hare I
Richard Mervyn Hare
The Language of Morals Oxford 1991

Hare II
Richard M. Hare
Philosophical discoveries", in: Mind, LXIX, 1960
Linguistik und Philosophie, G. Grewendorf/G. Meggle, Frankfurt/M. 1974/1995

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