Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Science: Science is a systematic process of acquiring knowledge about the natural world through observation, experimentation, and hypothesis testing. It is based on the assumption that the universe is governed by natural laws that can be discovered through scientific inquiry. See also Method, Review, Knowledge, Verification, Confirmation.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Pierre Duhem on Science - Dictionary of Arguments

I 294
Science/Logic/Duhem: Which logical conditions must be fulfilled in the hypothesis selection? Does the logic require that our hypothesis be, or at least be in harmony with a cosmological system? Not at all! Our physical theories do not place their pride in being explanations (metaphysical). They are not assumptions about the actual nature of material things. They have only the economic summary and classification of the experimental laws as their goal. They are independent and independent of any metaphysical system. >Systems
, >Models, >Theories, >Observation, >Experiments.
I 295
Does logic require that the hypotheses by induction be generalized experimental laws? No: logic cannot make impossible demands. We are therefore not reluctant to include postulates under the foundations of physics which were not supplied by the experiment.
Logic also does not dictate us to introduce our hypotheses individually and to control them individually before application. That would be absurd because of holism.
What conditions must now be fulfilled according to logic in the choice of hypotheses?
1. No self-contradictory theorem is acceptable.
2. No reciprocal contradiction.
3. The conclusions which the mathematical derivation can draw from the totality are, to represent the totality of the experimental laws with reasonable approximation. >Idealization.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Duh I
P. Duhem
La théorie physique, son objet et sa structure, Paris 1906
German Edition:
Ziel und Struktur der physikalischen Theorien Hamburg 1998

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