Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Axiom: principle or rule for linking elements of a theory that is not proven within the theory. It is assumed that axioms are true and evident. Adding or eliminating axioms turns a system into another system. Accordingly, more or less statements can be constructed or derived in the new system. See also axiom systems, systems, strength of theories, proofs, provability.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Pierre Duhem on Axioms - Dictionary of Arguments

I 352
Hypotheses/Duhem: It is wrong to believe that the introduction of certain hypotheses is justified by means of theorems that are, so to speak, evidently derived from ordinary life.

Often an analogy is quite superficial: it consists only between the words, but not between the thoughts. Nothing but word games.
E.g. The expression entropy has only a meaning in the language of the physicist.

I 355
Euler commits a circular conclusion: Definition: A power is the force that brings a body from rest to movement ...

DuhemVsEuler: Will Euler take away the very former sense of the word power, and give a simple word definition, whose arbitrariness is limited by nothing? (> Definition). Word definitions are arbitrary.
Euler has force or used in the everyday sense
It is much less a definition than a theorem, to which Euler ascribes obviousness, it is an axiom.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Duh I
P. Duhem
La théorie physique, son objet et sa structure, Paris 1906
German Edition:
Ziel und Struktur der physikalischen Theorien Hamburg 1998

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