Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Similarity: Similarity is the conformity of one or more - but not all - properties of two or more objects. See also Identity, Equality, Properties, Predicates, Predication, Identification, Descriptions.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

R. Descartes on Similarity - Dictionary of Arguments

Foucault I 85ff
Similarity/Descartes/DescartesVsSimilarity/Foucault: For Descartes, similarity is a confused mixture that needs to be analyzed in terms of identity/difference, measure, order.
, >Identity, >Reality.
Descartes does not reject comparisons. >Comparisons.
Transitivity (a = c) is only possible through comparisons.
Any knowledge is made through comparisons.
There are only two forms of comparison: measure and order.
Units and multiplicities can be measured, i.e. continuous and discontinuous units can be measured. Order. ((s) works without reference to externalities): from inside out.
Measure ((s): works from outside to inside (division).

Order/Descartes: I recognize the order between A and B by looking at nothing else but the mutual endpoint. One can recognize the order of things "not in their entities in detail", but by discovering the simplest being, and after this the next one.(1)
The comparison, on the other hand, requires with the help of the measure first a division, then the application of a common unity. >Order, >Unity.

Order: Comparison and measure here form the same thing: Progress without interruption. >Measurements.
Thus series are created whose first point is an entity from which one can have a view independently of any other, and where the other point is created with growing differences.
The distinction between identity and difference dissolves similarity.
The absolute character that one assigns to what is simple does not concern the being of things, but only the way in which they can be recognized.

New: The comparison only has the role of revealing the order of the world.
Tradition: The game of similarity was once unlimited. It was always possible to discover new similarities.
New: Now a finite enumeration will become possible.

1. Descartes, PHilosophische Werke I. Regeln zur Leitung des Geistes, Leipzig 1906 [Philosophische Bibliothek 26a] S. 81

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Foucault I
M. Foucault
Les mots et les choses: Une archéologie des sciences humaines , Paris 1966 - The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences, New York 1970
German Edition:
Die Ordnung der Dinge. Eine Archäologie der Humanwissenschaften Frankfurt/M. 1994

Foucault II
Michel Foucault
l’Archéologie du savoir, Paris 1969
German Edition:
Archäologie des Wissens Frankfurt/M. 1981

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