Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Animals: Animals are subjects of moral consideration, prompting debates on ethics, consciousness, and our responsibilities towards non-human beings in philosophical discourse. They challenge notions of personhood and the nature of sentience.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Richard Dawkins on Animals - Dictionary of Arguments

I 117
Animal/Information/Deception/Dawkins: can animals lie, i.e. deliberately give false information?
Gardner, B.T. und R.A.: Thesis(1): chimpanzees can deceive and lie.
I 118
DawkinsVs: Instead, I speak of an effect that functionally corresponds to deception.
E.g. A bird emits a warning call to secure food for himself alone. We should only say that he got food at the expense of the others.
I 119
Deception/Genes/Dawkins: Since we grew up with the idea that evolution served the "well-being of the species", we naturally assume that liars and deceived each belong to different species.
But instead we must even expect children to deceive their parents, wives to deceive their husbands, and brothers lying to each other.
I 443
Animal/Psychology/Nicholas Humphrey: Thesis: Socially living beings must develop a psychology.
I 165
Relativity Selection/Dawkins: to determine the degree of relationship actuarial weightings can be used as a basis. How much of my wealth would I invest in the life of another individual.
I 166
An animal can behave as if it had done this calculation. E.g. just as a human catches a ball as if he had solved a series of differential equations.
I 179
Animal/Knowledge/Behavior/Dawkins: the average values a researcher determined for the behavior of a group of lions were in a certain way also at the disposal of the lions themselves! Form of Thought.
Estimates of the degree of relationship by an animal and a zoologist may be roughly amount to the same.
If this has been going on for generations, the selection may have favored a degree of altruism that corresponds to the average degree of relationship in a pack.

1. Gardner, B.T. und R.A, (1971). Two-Way Communication With an Infant Chimpanzee. In: Schrier, A.M., Stollnitz, F. (eds.) Behavior of Non-Human Primates, Vol. 4 New York: Academic Press. pp. 117-184.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Da I
R. Dawkins
The Selfish Gene, Oxford 1976
German Edition:
Das egoistische Gen, Hamburg 1996

M. St. Dawkins
Through Our Eyes Only? The Search for Animal Consciousness, Oxford/New York/Heidelberg 1993
German Edition:
Die Entdeckung des tierischen Bewusstseins Hamburg 1993

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