Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Science: Science is a systematic process of acquiring knowledge about the natural world through observation, experimentation, and hypothesis testing. It is based on the assumption that the universe is governed by natural laws that can be discovered through scientific inquiry. See also Method, Review, Knowledge, Verification, Confirmation.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Aristotle on Science - Dictionary of Arguments

Gadamer I 357
Science/Aristotle/Gadamer: Aristotle has a very nice picture for the logic of [the] process [of induction]. He compares the many observations one makes with a fleeing army. (...) if, in this general flight, one observation is confirmed through re-
Gadamer I 358
peated experience, then it stops.
, >Knowledge/Aristotle.
Thus at this point, as it were, a first standstill in the general flight sets in.
If others now join the flight, the whole army of the fugitives comes to a halt at the end and again obeys the unit of the command.
The uniform mastery of the whole symbolizes here what science is. The picture is intended to show how science, i.e. general truth, can come about in the first place, which must not depend on the randomness of the observations, but should be valid in real generality.
- - -
Bubner I 120
Epagogé/Aristotle/Bubner: Epagogé emerges from the rhetorical practice of providing examples. Introduction. Not strict induction in today's sense of the relation of universal quantification and individual cases.
>Induction, >Deduction.
In Aristotle: no comparable subsumption relation.
Previous Knowledge/Aristotle: where does it come from? We are always already familiar with the concrete individual from the sensory experience. But the universal?
>Prior knolwdge/Today's discussion.
Universality/Knowledge/AristotleVsPlato: VsAnamnesis: also knowledge about the universal comes from sensory experience and Epagogé.
Science/Aristotle: Principles as a basis cannot be the object of science. Form of Thought. They derive from induction, but can only be comprised intuitively.
I 123
BaconVsAristotle: "Novum Organon" (! 620): Tired of scholastic formula. Turning to empiricism and sense of reality.
"Once people have become dependent on the verdict of others (senators without voting rights), they no longer increase science, they limit themselves to praising certain writers ..."
Bacon: pro induction from concrete sensuousness, vs infertile dialectics of Aristotle consisting of syllogisms.
Science/Antiquity/Bubner: does have the peculiar features of childish discovery. Fertile in disputes, poor in works. Was stuck for centuries.
Arts/Antiquity/Bubner: in contrast to science, they were strikingly lively.
I 147
Science/Aristotle/Bubner: every individual science is dealing with reality, but none with reality in itself, but only with the chosen aspect. "They cut out a part of the being and look at it with regard to what is to come to it."
Even the sum of the individual sciences will never overcome the limitation that lies in specialization.
The question of the reality behind it cannot be asked in the surroundings of the present knowledge.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Gadamer I
Hans-Georg Gadamer
Wahrheit und Methode. Grundzüge einer philosophischen Hermeneutik 7. durchgesehene Auflage Tübingen 1960/2010

Gadamer II
H. G. Gadamer
The Relevance of the Beautiful, London 1986
German Edition:
Die Aktualität des Schönen: Kunst als Spiel, Symbol und Fest Stuttgart 1977

Bu I
R. Bubner
Antike Themen und ihre moderne Verwandlung Frankfurt 1992

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