Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Knowledge: Knowledge is a conscious relationship to sentences or propositions, which legitimately attributes to them truth or falsehood. What is known is true. Conversely, it does not apply that everything that is true is also known. See also knowledge how, propositional knowledge, realism, abilities, competence, truth, facts, situations, language, certainty, beliefs, omniscience, logical knowledge, reliability

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Karl Popper on Knowledge - Dictionary of Arguments

Brockman I 115
Knowledge/Popper/Deutsch: creative criticism, interleaved with creative conjecture, is how humans learn one another’s behaviors, including language, and extract meaning from one another’s utterances.(1)
Deutsch: Those are also the processes by which all new knowledge is created: They are how we innovate, make progress, and create abstract understanding for its own sake. This is human-level intelligence: thinking.
Popper’s argument implies that all thinking entities -
Brockman I 116
- human or not, biological or artificial - must create such knowledge in fundamentally the same way.
Deutsch: (…) understanding any of those entities requires traditionally human concepts such as culture, creativity, disobedience, and morality (…).
Evolution of Knowledge/Deutsch: there were hundreds of thousands of years of near stasis. Progress happened only on timescales much longer than people’s lifetimes, so in a typical generation no one benefited from any progress. >Imitation/Deutsch, >Learning/Deutsch.

1. Karl Popper, Conjectures and Refutations (Abingdon, UK: Routledge, 1963).

Deutsch, D. “Beyond Reward and Punishment” in: Brockman, John (ed.) 2019. Twenty-Five Ways of Looking at AI. New York: Penguin Press.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Po I
Karl Popper
The Logic of Scientific Discovery, engl. trnsl. 1959
German Edition:
Grundprobleme der Erkenntnislogik. Zum Problem der Methodenlehre
Wahrheitstheorien, Gunnar Skirbekk, Frankfurt/M. 1977

Brockman I
John Brockman
Possible Minds: Twenty-Five Ways of Looking at AI New York 2019

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