|Causes: whether something is a physical cause of something depends on the separation of two objects or processes that are to be identified as cause and effect, as well as the transmission of energy. Whether this relationship comes about is therefore contingent. From a linguistic point of view, the relationship between cause and effect is a necessary relation since the concept of the cause is applied only to something which has an effect. See also de re, de dicto, necessity, contingency, causality, effect._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
David Deutsch on Causes - Dictionary of Arguments
Cause: two conditions if a variable is to be the cause of its own replication:
1) the size really has to be reproduced,
2) most of its variants may not be reproduced in the same situation.
For x to be a cause of y, two conditions must apply:
1) both must occur,
2) y would not have to be allowed to occur if x had have been different.
>Necessity, >Sufficiency, >Contrafactual conditional.
Cause: thinking about causes and effects thus inevitably relates to variants of causes and effects.
>Effect._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Fabric of Reality, Harmondsworth 1997
Die Physik der Welterkenntnis München 2000