|Causes: whether something is a physical cause of something depends on the separation of two objects or processes that are to be identified as cause and effect, as well as the transmission of energy. Whether this relationship comes about is therefore contingent. From a linguistic point of view, the relationship between cause and effect is a necessary relation since the concept of the cause is applied only to something which has an effect. See also de re, de dicto, necessity, contingency, causality, effect._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Nancy Cartwright on Causes - Dictionary of Arguments
Cause/Causality/Empiricism/VsCauses - Russell: the law of gravity is given in equations - there are no "causes" and "effects" here.
Equations/Cartwright: are today's generalizations. - They are the heart of science.
Explanations by equations are often redundant. - I.e. there are alternative equations! - Cause: cannot be redundant. - Equation: causes nothing, but includes phenomena in a frame.
Alternative equations: offer different laws. - (they compete) - E.g. multiple versions of the Schrödinger equation.
CartwrightVsRussell: I prefer causes rather than laws. >Laws, >Natural laws._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
How the laws of physics lie Oxford New York 1983
A Neglected Theory of Truth. Philosophical Essays, Cambridge/MA pp. 71-93
Theories of Truth, Paul Horwich, Aldershot 1994
Ontology and the theory of meaning Chicago 1954