Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Language, philosophy: language is a set of phonetic or written coded forms fixed at a time for the exchange of information or distinctions within a community whose members are able to recognize and interpret these forms as signs or symbols. In a wider sense, language is also a sign system, which can be processed by machines. See also communication, language rules, meaning, meaning change, information, signs, symbols, words, sentences, syntax, semantics, grammar, pragmatics, translation, interpretation, radical interpretation, indeterminacy.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Humberto Maturana on Language - Dictionary of Arguments

I 56
Language/Maturana: orientation behavior - not denotative. - Otherwise its evolution is not comprehensible. - It would otherwise presuppose denotation.
>Language evolution
, >Denotation, >Behavior.
Language/Maturana: is connotative: Orientation in the cognitive domain - no reference to entities.
>Reference, >Operation/Maturana.
I 58
No transmitting information. - There is nothing transferred from one organism to another.
Instead: influencing an orientation.
>Information, >Communication.
I 91
Instead: preparation of a reference frame.
>Reference systems.
I 59
"Message": it is still up to the listener how he orientates himself - in orientation behavior no distinction semantics/syntax possible.
I 126
Language/Maturana: must arise as a result from anything else! The fundamental process is the coupling of ontogenetic structures, which leads to the development of a consensual area.
>Structural coupling.
I 198
Language/coverage/cover/Maturana: with action one makes distinction - with that the act turns into a consensual sign. - So the distinction is covered.
E.g. Object/Subject: arises as a consensual coordination of actions - it covers the action and makes it invisible. - Objects cover actions. - Objects are not given before language.
>Objects, >Ontology.
I 199
Language: no abstraction but physically. Transmission/symbolization/meaning/denotation: these are always secondary for the observer.
>Observation, >Symbols, >Signs, >Meaning, >Denotation.
I 255
Language/Maturana: outside language we cannot distinguish anything. - Not even ourselves. - Language presupposes neurophysiology, is therefore no neurophysiological phenomenon itself.
Words: = distinctions.
>Words, >Word meaning.
I 261
Language does not operate with symbols - (these refer to something independent).
Signs/sounds/gestures: do not constitute words by themselves - and strings of signs do not constitute language action.
Language: coordination of actions.
I 282
Object in brackets: considers language as a biological phenomenon. - Changes of structural dynamics are observable.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Maturana I
Umberto Maturana
Biologie der Realität Frankfurt 2000

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