Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Language, philosophy: language is a set of phonetic or written coded forms fixed at a time for the exchange of information or distinctions within a community whose members are able to recognize and interpret these forms as signs or symbols. In a wider sense, language is also a sign system, which can be processed by machines. See also communication, language rules, meaning, meaning change, information, signs, symbols, words, sentences, syntax, semantics, grammar, pragmatics, translation, interpretation, radical interpretation, indeterminacy.
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Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

 
Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Humberto Maturana on Language - Dictionary of Arguments

I 56
Language/Maturana: orientation behavior - not denotative. - Otherwise its evolution is not comprehensible. - It would otherwise presuppose denotation.
>Language evolution
, >Denotation, >Behavior.
Language/Maturana: is connotative: Orientation in the cognitive domain - no reference to entities.
>Reference, >Operation/Maturana.
I 58
No transmitting information. - There is nothing transferred from one organism to another.
Instead: influencing an orientation.
>Information, >Communication.
I 91
Instead: preparation of a reference frame.
>Reference systems.
I 59
"Message": it is still up to the listener how he orientates himself - in orientation behavior no distinction semantics/syntax possible.
I 126
Language/Maturana: must arise as a result from anything else! The fundamental process is the coupling of ontogenetic structures, which leads to the development of a consensual area.
>Structural coupling.
I 198
Language/coverage/cover/Maturana: with action one makes distinction - with that the act turns into a consensual sign. - So the distinction is covered.
>Operation/Maturana.
E.g. Object/Subject: arises as a consensual coordination of actions - it covers the action and makes it invisible. - Objects cover actions. - Objects are not given before language.
>Objects, >Ontology.
I 199
Language: no abstraction but physically. Transmission/symbolization/meaning/denotation: these are always secondary for the observer.
>Observation, >Symbols, >Signs, >Meaning, >Denotation.
I 255
Language/Maturana: outside language we cannot distinguish anything. - Not even ourselves. - Language presupposes neurophysiology, is therefore no neurophysiological phenomenon itself.
Words: = distinctions.
>Words, >Word meaning.
I 261
Language does not operate with symbols - (these refer to something independent).
Signs/sounds/gestures: do not constitute words by themselves - and strings of signs do not constitute language action.
Language: coordination of actions.
I 282
Object in brackets: considers language as a biological phenomenon. - Changes of structural dynamics are observable.
>Objectivity/Maturana.

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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Maturana I
Umberto Maturana
Biologie der Realität Frankfurt 2000


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