Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Rationality, philosophy: rationality is the ability of a being to consciously adapt to a situation due to the generalizations of his experiences. It can also be rational to want to learn something new. See also system, order, creativity, discoveries, evaluation, repetition.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Max Black on Rationality - Dictionary of Arguments

III 29
Rationality/Justification/RationalityVsVs/Black: four positions:
1) the question itself is incoherent or contradicts itself (Geach) >Rationality/Geach.
2) The question makes sense, but cannot expect a rational response (Ayer)
3) rationality must be based on something non-rational (Popper)
4) The impossibility of a response shows that rationality does not need a justification (defense) - Black: Another possibility: proto-rationality as a justification of rationality - E.g. risk response without time for reflection.
III 31
The proto-rationaliy is then the subsequent construction of reasons.
III 32
Quasi-rationality/animal/Black: behavior "as if" one had reasons, e.g. as if the stone hit the target - (because it could hit).
Authors on Rationality: >Popper, >P.Singer, >Ayer, >Hume.
III 33
Anti-Rationalism/Black: for the anti-rationalist to survive at all, we we must assume proto-rationality in his case - all further rationality is based on the social abilities - "otherwise he would be without friends.
III 36
Key point: as a child one has no choice about whether one wants to be rational.
Irrationality: one would have to become someone else’s pet -> apathy.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Black I
Max Black
"Meaning and Intention: An Examination of Grice’s Views", New Literary History 4, (1972-1973), pp. 257-279
Handlung, Kommunikation, Bedeutung, G. Meggle (Hg), Frankfurt/M 1979

Black II
M. Black
The Labyrinth of Language, New York/London 1978
German Edition:
Sprache. Eine Einführung in die Linguistik München 1973

Black III
M. Black
The Prevalence of Humbug Ithaca/London 1983

Black IV
Max Black
"The Semantic Definition of Truth", Analysis 8 (1948) pp. 49-63
Truth and Meaning, Paul Horwich, Aldershot 1994

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