Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

Home Screenshot Tabelle Begriffe

Necessity, philosophy: different kinds of necessity are distinguished, differing in their strength. For example, physical, logical or metaphysical necessity. See also necessity de dicto, necessity de re.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Peter M. Simons on Necessity - Dictionary of Arguments

I 269
Necessity of origin/organism/Kripke: (1972(1), 312ff, 1980(2), 110ff): thesis: an organism could not have descended from another cell of origin as it actually did (Simons pro).
But the zygote is still no permanent essential part because it dies early. Phase-sortal/McGinn: e.g. "child" and "adult" are accordingly also zygotes.
I 270
Solution/Simons: it is essential for the organism, that it follows from sexual reproduction and that it has its zygote as an initial spurious part. However, it is unclear whether the brain is an essential part (> Brain Transplant, see also Identity/Parfit, >Body/B. Williams).
I 295
Necessary Existence/Simons: necessary existence is only possible with abstract objects: e.g. universals, numbers, etc. Problem: if something exists necessarily, everything else depends on it.

1. Kripke, S. A. (1972). Naming and Necessity, in: Davidson/Harmann
(eds.) (1972), 253-355
2. Kripke, S. A. (1980). Naming and Necessity. Oxford: Blackwell

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Simons I
P. Simons
Parts. A Study in Ontology Oxford New York 1987

Send Link
> Counter arguments against Simons
> Counter arguments in relation to Necessity

Authors A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   Z  

Concepts A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   Y   Z