Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Copula: a copula is a connection of the subject with a predicate within a sentence or statement. E.g. the sky is blue. The copula is not the same as the "is" of identity.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Peter F. Strawson on Copula - Dictionary of Arguments

I 214
a) stating connective: (s) is a...
b) stated connective: is in relation to..., is an example of...
Double-digit expressions are not designations of relations themselves!
Predicable relations between things not relations themselves.
I 215
a) Species universals: provides classification principle, does not presuppose one - E.g. generic name.
b) characterizing universals (ch. u.): e.g. verbs, adjectives: provide class.
principle only for previously sorted particulars.
But also particulars themselves provide the principle of summary: e.g. Socrates as well as wisdom. ->attributive tie: (non-relational connection between particulars of various types).
I 216
Example of the characterizing tie between Socrates and the universal dying corresponds to the attributive tie between Socrates and his death.
I 216
1) Species or Sample tie/Strawson: a) Fido is a dog, an animal, a terrier - b) Fido, Coco and Rover are dogs.
2) characterizing tie: e.g. Socrates is wise, is lively, argues - b) Socrates, Plato, Aristotle are all wise, all of them die.
3) attributive tie: grouping of particulars because of the characterizing tie. E.g. smiling, praying.
Each is a symmetrical form: x is a characterizing tie to y - asymmetrical: x is characterized by y. - Then y dependent member.
I 219
Categorical criterion of the subject-predicate distinction: x is asserted to be bound non-relationallly to y i.e. universals of particulars can be predicted, but not by particulars of universals.
But even universals can be predicated by universals.
I 221
New/Strawson: distinction between object types instead of word types.
I 227f
Connective/Bond/Strawson: Special case: between particulars: e.g. the catch which eliminated Compton was made by Carr.
Solution: regard is carried out, etc. as quasi-universal.
Only quasi-universal: because action and execution of the action are not different.
I 229
Nevertheless: a simplification like Compton was eliminated by Carr has a different weighting.
Point: we have transferred the role of the subject of a predication to theobjects.
This is a new criterion as a bridge between the two others.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Strawson I
Peter F. Strawson
Individuals: An Essay in Descriptive Metaphysics. London 1959
German Edition:
Einzelding und logisches Subjekt Stuttgart 1972

Strawson II
Peter F. Strawson
"Truth", Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Suppl. Vol XXIV, 1950 - dt. P. F. Strawson, "Wahrheit",
Wahrheitstheorien, Gunnar Skirbekk, Frankfurt/M. 1977

Strawson III
Peter F. Strawson
"On Understanding the Structure of One’s Language"
Truth and Meaning, G. Evans/J. McDowell, Oxford 1976

Strawson IV
Peter F. Strawson
Analysis and Metaphysics. An Introduction to Philosophy, Oxford 1992
German Edition:
Analyse und Metaphysik München 1994

Strawson V
P.F. Strawson
The Bounds of Sense: An Essay on Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason. London 1966
German Edition:
Die Grenzen des Sinns Frankfurt 1981

Strawson VI
Peter F Strawson
Grammar and Philosophy in: Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Vol 70, 1969/70 pp. 1-20
Linguistik und Philosophie, G. Grewendorf/G. Meggle, Frankfurt/M. 1974/1995

Strawson VII
Peter F Strawson
"On Referring", in: Mind 59 (1950)
Eigennamen, Ursula Wolf, Frankfurt/M. 1993

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