Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Copula: a copula is a connection of the subject with a predicate within a sentence or statement. E.g. the sky is blue. The copula is not the same as the "is" of identity.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Peter Geach on Copula - Dictionary of Arguments

I 221
Copula/Geach: if you understand concept and object correctly, you do not need the copula.
>Concept/Geach, >Concept/Frege, >Object, >Object/Frege.
Instead, you can use "falls under". - (In ancient times it was also handled like this).
>Ancient philosophy.
"is": ((s) "is a" suggests false identity (at most partial identity, i.e. classification).
>"Is", >Identity, >Identification, >Classification.
Frege late: VsFrege early: nor "falls under".
"is a"/Frege: does not mean "belongs to a class"!
"Is a..."/Geach: is no logical relation between an x and an object (class) called "human."
>Prediation/Geach, >Predication, >Attribution.
Complex Expression/Geach: "A person is wise" is a complex expression that needs to be split (analyzed): into "person" and ".... is wise".
Accordingly, Frege's remark "the concept of man" (which is not supposed to be a concept) is to be divided:
E.g., "The concept of man is realized" does not assert of a particular object that it is realized.
To say that a certain object, e.g. Caesar, is realized does not lead to falsity (as Frege believed) but is nonsense. (GeachVsFrege).
>Senseless, >Truth value gap.
The sentence splits into "Man" and "The concept ... is realized".
The latter is a paraphrase of "something is a...".
Sentences that cannot be analyzed in this innocent way must be considered meaningless.
>Sentences/Geach, cf. >Saturated/unsaturated/Frege.
E.g., "The concept of man is timeless".

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Gea I
P.T. Geach
Logic Matters Oxford 1972

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