Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Upton I 136
Physical health/psychological theories/Upton: The female menopause is a universal phenomenon, for example, but there are differences in how this is experienced; hot flushes are more likely to be reported and viewed as a negative experience in Western cultures, where the menopause is viewed as a loss, than in cultures where the menopause represents a healthy, positive life stage (Flint, 1982(1); McMaster et al., 1997(2); Gold et aL, 2000(3)). Indeed, attitudes towards the menopause help explain individual differences in the experience of the menopause in Western society; while some view this as a medical condition to be treated by medication, others see it as a normal transition (Alder et al.. 2000)(4).
(…) there is enormous variability in terms of the impact that such health problems have on individual functioning. While the level of chronicity will influence this, there is also evidence that individual differences such as personality and attitude can mediate the impact of these illnesses on feelings of well-being. For example, optimistic individuals with a positive outlook on life have been found to live longer (Snowdon, 2002)(5). >Adulthood/Psychological theories.


1. Flint, M (1982) Male and female menopause: a cultural put on, in Voda, AM, Dinnerstein, M and O’Donnell, SR (eds) Changing Perspectives on Menopause. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
2. McMaster, J, Pitts, M and Poyah, G (1997) The menopausal experiences of women in a developing country: ‘there is a time for everything: to be a teenager, a mother and a granny’. Women’s Health, 26(4): 1—13.
3. Gold, EB, Sternfeld, B, Kelsey,JL, Brown, C and Mouton C et al. (2000) The relation of demographic and lifestyle factors to symptoms in a multi-ethnic population of 40-5 5-year-old women. American Journal of Epidemiology, 152:463-73.
4. Alder, EM and Ross, LA (2000) Menopausal symptoms and the domino effect. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 18: 75-8.
5. Snowdon (2002) Aging with Grace: What the nun study teaches us about leading longer, healthier, and more meaningful lives. New York: Bantam.

Further reading:
Population Reference Bureau (2008) Socioeconomic status and health disparities in old age. Today’s Research on Aging, 11 (June). Available online at www.prb.org/pdf08/TodaysResearchAgingi i .pdf.


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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Psychological Theories
Upton I
Penney Upton
Developmental Psychology 2011


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