Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Learning: learning is acquiring the ability to establish relationships between signs, symptoms or symbols and objects. This also includes e.g. recognition and recollection of patterns, similarities, sensory perceptions, self-perception, etc. In the ideal case, the ability to apply generalizations to future cases is acquired while learning. See also knowledge, knowledge-how, competence.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

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Arnold J. Sameroff on Learning - Dictionary of Arguments

Upton I 63
Learning/development/Sameroff/Upton: Sameroff (1991)(1) describes a transactional model of development in which the mutual effects that children and adults have on modifying each other’s behaviour is emphasised. the socio-cultural context of development, including expectalions and beliefs about behaviour, is (…) relevant.
Upton I 65
For many years it was believed that anoxia at birth caused problems with intellectual development. However, this belief was based on retrospective studies of children with learning difficulties. Prospective studies of children with anoxia found that, in fact, most children who suffer anoxia develop normally. According to Sameroff and Chandler (1975)(2), in most cases, only those anoxic newborns who lived in socio-economically disadvantaged homes, characterised by neglect and a dearth of learning opportunities, tended to perform below average on IQ tests in childhood. The social environment, it seems, is more important than the initial birthing problem.

1. Sameroff, A.J.(1991) The social context of development, in Woodhead, M, Carr, R. and Light, P.
(eds) Becoming a Person, London: The Open University Press/Routledge.
2. Sameroff, A.J. and Chandler, M.J.(1975) Reproductive risk and the continuum of caretaker
casualty, in Horowitz, F.D. (ed.) Review of Child Development Research. Vol.4. Chicago, IL: Uni
versity of Chicago Press.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Sameroff, Arnold J.
Upton I
Penney Upton
Developmental Psychology 2011

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