Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Falsification: experimental or logical refutation of a general or a specific statement. Depending on the nature of the statement, there are differences in terms of whether a single counterexample is sufficient for a falsification, or a certain ratio of positive and negative cases is crucial. See also verification, verificationism, confirmation, Bayesianism, probability, hypotheses, theories.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Karl Popper on Falsification - Dictionary of Arguments

I 122
Falsification/Popper: can always be overridden ad hoc. >Ad hoc hypotheses, >Quine-Duhem Thesis.
I 123
Empirical scientific method: consists precisely in the exclusion of such procedures. - "Humean contradiction": only experience is allowed, but not conclusive - solution/Popper: not all sentences are fully decidable. - There must be particular empirical sentences as a major premise of falsifying conclusions. >Undecidability.
I 127
These cannot be protocol sentences, because these are only psychological. >Protocol sentences.
Stegmüller I 400ff
Falsification/Popper: falsification itself must be repeatable - we can reformulate universal statements into "There are-not"-sentences to falsify them, e.g. "there are no non-white swans". Induction/Popper.
Schurz I 15
Falsification/Asymmetry/Popper: The asymmetry is valid for strict (unexceptional all propositions): they cannot be verified by any finite set of observations but can be falsified by a single counterexample.
LakatosVsPopper: Theories are never rejected on the basis of a single counterexample, but adapted.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Po I
Karl Popper
The Logic of Scientific Discovery, engl. trnsl. 1959
German Edition:
Grundprobleme der Erkenntnislogik. Zum Problem der Methodenlehre
Wahrheitstheorien, Gunnar Skirbekk, Frankfurt/M. 1977

Carnap V
W. Stegmüller
Rudolf Carnap und der Wiener Kreis
Hauptströmungen der Gegenwartsphilosophie Bd I, , München 1987

St I
W. Stegmüller
Hauptströmungen der Gegenwartsphilosophie Bd I Stuttgart 1989

W. Stegmüller
Hauptströmungen der Gegenwartsphilosophie Bd 2 Stuttgart 1987

W. Stegmüller
Hauptströmungen der Gegenwartsphilosophie Bd 3 Stuttgart 1987

W. Stegmüller
Hauptströmungen der Gegenwartsphilosophie Bd 4 Stuttgart 1989

Schu I
G. Schurz
Einführung in die Wissenschaftstheorie Darmstadt 2006

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