Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Haslam I 173
Categorization/group behavior/psychological theories: (Cf. >Categorization/Tajfel, >Group behavior/Tajfel, >Social Identity theory/Tajfel), after Tajfel’s minimal group studies (Tajfel et al.1971(1)) further studies have also manipulated explicit dependence on the ingroup and/or outgroup for rewards in the MGP. For example, as well as manipulating explicit categorization, Lowell Gaertner and Chet Insko (2000)(2) also manipulated whether a dependence structure was present or absent (i.e., participants were the only ones allocating rewards or others allocated them too). The prediction here was that the sole ability to allocate (i.e., where there is no dependence) should eliminate dependence on others, and thereby eliminate ingroup favouritism. This prediction held, but only for men: their responses were no more discriminatory than non-categorized men. However, women participants showed ingroup favouritism irrespective of the dependence structure –present or absent.



1. Tajfel, H., Flament, C., Billig, M.G. and Bundy, R.F. (1971) ‘Social categorization and intergroup behaviour’, European Journal of Social Psychology, 1: 149–77.
2. Gaertner, L. and Insko, C.A. (2000) ‘Intergroup discrimination in the minimal group paradigm: Categorization, reciprocation or fear?’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79: 77–94.


Russell Spears and Sabine Otten,“Discrimination. Revisiting Tajfel’s minimal group studies“, in: Joanne R. Smith and S. Alexander Haslam (eds.) 2017. Social Psychology. Revisiting the Classic studies. London: Sage Publications


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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Psychological Theories
Haslam I
S. Alexander Haslam
Joanne R. Smith
Social Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies London 2017


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