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Resilience/causes/protection/risks/developmental psychology: the idea of progressive and spreading effects of problems, including negative chain reactions, has been quite influential (see Masten, Burt, & Coatsworth, 2006(1); Masten et al., 2005(2); Patterson, Reid & Dishion, 1992(3); Rutter, Kim-Cohen, & Maughan, 2006(4)). In 2010, two special issues of the journal Development and Psychopathology were published on the broad theme of developmental cascades, which encompasses both negative and positive chain reactions overtime, as well as the developmental impact of the many interactions across system levels that shape individual development (Masten & Cicchetti, 2010 a(5), 2010b(6)). >Resilience/psychological theories, >Resilience/Rutter.
The long-term return on investments in early child development, for example through quality preschool experiences, can be viewed as initiating a positive cascade by promoting competence, which in turn begets future competence (Heckman, 2006)(7). Similarly, effects from interventions that grow over time or affect domains not originally targeted (see Patterson, Forgatch, & DeGarmo, 2010(8)) can be viewed as cascade effects.
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The transition to adulthood, (…) has been viewed as a normative opportunity window when brain development and concomitant capacities for planning and self-redirection, motivation to move out into the world, and the opening of opportunities afforded by societies (e.g., military service, college, apprenticeships, or mentoring) converge in many contemporary societies (Masten, Obradovic, & Burt, 2006)(9). It is probably not a coincidence that longitudinal studies of resilience spanning this window have noted positive turning points when young people who got off-track in adolescence stage a recovery or move down a positive new track (Clausen, 1991(10); Elder, 1974/1999(11); Hauser, Allen, & Golden, 2006(12); Masten et al., 2004(13); Werner & Smith, 1992(14), 2001(15); Rutter & Quinton, 1984 (16)).
1. Masten, A. S., Burt, K. B., & Coatsworth, J. D. (2006). Competence and psychopathology in development. In D. Ciccheti & D. Cohen (Eds), Developmental psychopathology. Vol 3: Risk, disorder and psychopathology (2nd edn, 696—738). New York: Wiley.
2. Masten, A. S., Roisman, G. I., Long, J. D., Burt, K. B., Obradovic, J., Riley, J. R., Boelcke-Stennes, K., &
Tellegen, A. (2005). Developmental cascades: Linking academic achievement, externalizing and internalizing symptoms over 20 years. Developmental Psychology, 41, 73 3—746.
3. Patterson, G. R, Reid, J. B., & Dishion, T. J. (1992). Antisocial boys. Eugene, OR: Castalla.
4. Rutter, M., Kim-Cohen, J., & Maughan, B. (2006). Continuities and discontinuities in psychopathology between childhood and adult life.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 276—295.
5. Masten, A. S., & Cicchetti, D. (Eds) (201 Oa). Developmental cascades (special issue, part i), Development and Psychopathology, 22,491—715.
6. Masten, A. S., & Cicchetti, D. (Eds) (201 Ob). Developmental cascades (special issue, part 2), Development and Psychopathology, 22, 717—983.
7. Heckman, J. J. (2006). Skill formation and the economics of investing in disadvantaged children.
Science, 312, 1900—1902.
8. Patterson, G. R., Forgatch, M. S., & DeGarmo, D. S. (2010). Cascading effects following intervention.
Developmental Psychopathology, 22,941—970.
9. Masten, A. S., Obradovic, J., & Burt, K. (2006). Resilience in emerging adulthood: Developmental perspectives on continuity and transformation. In J. J. Arnett & J. L. Tanner (Ed.), Emerging adults in
America: Coming of age in the 21St century (pp. 173—190). Washington, DC: American Psychological
10. Clausen, J. S. (1991). Adolescent competence and the shaping of the life course. Amen can Journal of
Sociology, 96, 805—842.
11. Elder, G. H.,Jr. (1974/1999). Children of the great depression: Social change in life experience. Boulder,
CO: Westview Press (originally published in Chicago by the University of Chicago Press).
12. Hauser, S. T., Alien, J. P., & Golden, E. (2006). Out of the woods: Tales of resilient teens. Cambridge, MA:
Harvard University Press.
13. Masten, A. S., Burt, K., Roisman, G. I., Obradovic, J., Long, J. D., & Tellegen, A. (2004). Resources and resilience in the transition to adulthood: Continuity and change. Development and Psychopathology,
14. Werner, E. E., & Smith, R. S. (1992). Overcoming the odds: High risk children from birth to adulthood.
Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
15. Werner, E. E., & Smith, R. S.(2001).Journeys from childhood to mid-life: Risk, resilience, and recovery.
Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
16. Rutter, M., & Quinton, D. (1984). Long-term follow-up of women institutionalized in childhood:
Factors promoting good functioning in adult life. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 2,
Ann S. Masten, “Resilience in Children. Vintage Rutter and Beyond”, in: Alan M. Slater and Paul C. Quinn (eds.) 2012. Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies. London: Sage Publications_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Alan M. Slater
Paul C. Quinn
Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies London 2012