|Causality: causality is the relation between two (separate) entities, whereby a state change of the one entity causes the state of the other entity to change. Nowadays it is assumed that an energy transfer is crucial for talking about a causal link.|
D. Hume was the first to consistently deny the observability of cause and effect. (David Hume Eine Untersuchung über den menschlichen Verstand, Hamburg, 1993, p. 95).
_____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.
|Slater I 133
Causality/dyslexia/Bradley/Bryant: Bradley and Bryant (1983)(1): in order to decide whether the connection between rhyming and alliteration skills and progress in reading was causal, two research methods need[ed] to be combined. A longitudinal approach, in which a large sample of children was followed over time to see whether early rhyme and alliteration skills could determine progress in reading and spelling, had to be combined with a training study. If sound categorization was indeed important for learning to read and to spell, then children who received intensive training in sound categorization should show gains in reading and spelling in comparison to children who did not receive such training. >Reading acquisition/Bradley/Bryant.
This combination hat not been used in studies of reading development before.
Slater I 135
Bradley and Bryant (1983) concluded that they had shown a causal link between categorizing sounds and learning to read. They speculated that experiences at home, before the children went to school, might underlie individual differences in rhyming and alliteration skills at school entry.
Slater I 139/140
Causality/VsBradley/VsBryant: it is the question whether Bradley and Bryant’s (1983)(1) study really established a causal connection between categorizing sounds and learning to read. Even though the study used only pre-reading children (as measured by the Schonell standardized test), some critics have argued that most children who grow up in literate Western societies have some letter knowledge before entering school, for example being able to print their own name and being aware of popular logos and printed signs (e.g., Castles & Coltheart, 2004)(2).
1. Bradley, L., & Bryant, P. E. (1983). Categorising sounds and learning to read: A causal connection. Nature, 310, 419–421.
2. Castles, A., & Coltheart, M. (2004). Is there a causal link from phonological awareness to success in learning to read? Cognition, 91, 77–111.
Usha Goswami, „Reading and Spelling.Revisiting Bradley and Bryant’s Study“ in: Alan M. Slater & Paul C. Quinn (eds.) 2012. Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies. London: Sage Publications_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Alan M. Slater
Paul C. Quinn
Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies London 2012