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Slater I 120
Intelligence tests/psychological theories: an example for a „culture-free“ IQ test is Raven’s Progressive Matrices: Raven’s is a well-known nonverbal reasoning test that was then generally assumed, and still is by many, to be “culture-free” because of its nonverbal character and the absence of any performance reliance on knowledge of specific information. >Intelligence tests/Jensen, >Intelligence/psychological theories.
Slater I 125
Johnson: Though the Raven is still regarded by many as a very pure indicator of general intelligence, this now seems very unlikely given the observation since 1969 of what is now known as the Flynn Effect (Flynn, 1987)(1). This is the robust observation that, throughout the 20th century, scores on intelligence tests of all kinds rose throughout the world, on average about three IQ points per decade.
There is some evidence that the rate of gain may be leveling off in developed nations, particularly in Scandinavia (Emanuelsson, Reuterberg, & Svensson, 1993(2); Sundet, Barlaug, & Torjussen, 2004(3); Teasdale & Owen, 2000(4)), but it may be accelerating in emerging nations (Colom, Flores-Mendoza, & Abad, 2007(5); Daley, Whaley, Seligman, Espinosa, & Neumann, 2003(6); Khaleffa, Sulman, & Lynn, 2009(7); Meisenberg, Lawless, Lambert, & Newton, 2005(8)).
Reasons for the gain/Flynn: (Flynn 2009)(9) the mayor possibilities are all environmental in character, because deterministic genetic changes of this magnitude could not take placee this fast at the level of the entire population. Raven’s scores [seem to be] subject to some form of cultural/environmental influence that applies from one generation to the next, which implies that group and national differences in mean scores may result from similar kinds of influences rather than from fixed genetically determined differences in the groups. See studies of (Beaujean & Osterlind, 2008(10); Kane & Oakland, 2000(11); Must, Must, & Raudik, 2003(12); te Nijenhuis & van der Flier, 2007(13); te Nijenhuis, van Vianen, & van der Flier, 2007(14); Wicherts et al., 2004(15).
Slater I 126
Jensen’s (…) subsequent work (especially Jensen, 1980(16), 1998(17)) has contributed substantially to the evidence that the tests validly measure some characteristic that matters to academic, occupational, and intellectual performances of all kinds, in a way that is not overtly culturally biased. Others have, however, contributed to this as well (e.g., Schmidt & Hunter, 2004(18); Schmidt & Hunter, 1998(19); Sackett, Kuncel, Arneson, Cooper, & Waters, 2009(20)).

1. Flynn, J. R. (1987). Massive IQ gains in 14 nations – What IQ tests really measure. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 171–191.
2. Emanuelsson, J., Reuterberg, S. E., & Svensson, A. (1993). Changing differences in intelligence? Comparisons between groups of thirteen-year-olds tested from 1960 to 1990. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 3, 259–277.
3. Sundet, J. M., Barlaug, D. G., & Torjussen, T. M. (2004). The end of the Flynn Effect? A study of secular trends in mean intelligence scores of Norwegian conscripts during half a century. Intelligence, 32, 349–362.
4.Teasdale, T. W., & Owen, D. R. (2000). Forty-year secular trends in cognitive abilities. Intelligence, 28, 115–120.
5. Colom, R., Flores-Mendoza, C. E., & Abad, F. J. (2007). Generational changes on the Draw-A-Man test: A comparison of Brazilian urban and rural children tested in 1930, 2002, and 2004. Journal of Biosocial Science, 39, 79–89.
6. Daley, T. C., Whaley, S. E., Seligman, M. D., Espinosa, M. P., & Neumann, C. (2003). IQ on the rise: The Flynn effect in rural Kenyan children. Psychological Science, 14, 215–219.
7. Khaleffa, O., Sulman, A., & Lynn, R. (2009). An increase in intelligence in Sudan, 1987–2007. Journal of Biosocial Science, 41, 279–283.
8. Meisenberg, G., Lawless, E., Lambert, E., & Newton, A. (2005). The Flynn Effect in the Caribbean: Generational change in test performance in Domenica. Mankind Quarterly, 46, 29–70.
9. Flynn, J. R. (2009). What is intelligence? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
10. Beaujean, A. A., & Osterlind, S. A. (2008). Using item response theory to assess the Flynn Effect in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 79 Children and Young Adults data. Intelligence, 36, 455–463.
11. Kane, H., & Oakland, T. D. (2000). Secular declines in Spearman’s g: Some evidence - from the United States. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 161, 337–345.
12. Must, O., Must, A., & Raudik, V. (2003). The secular rise in IQs: in Estonia the Flynn Effect is not a Jensen Effect. Intelligence, 3, 461–471.
13. te Nijenhuis, J., & van der Flier, H. (2007). The secular rise in IQs in the Netherlands: Is the Flynn Effect on g? Intelligence, 35, 1259–1265.
14. te Nijenhuis, J., van Vianen, A. E., & van der Flier, H. (2007). Score gains on g-loaded tests: No g. Intelligence, 35, 283–300.
15. Wicherts, J. M., Dolan, C. V., Hessen, D. J., Osterveld, P., van Baal, O. C., Boomsma, D. I., et al. (2004). Are intelligence tests measurement invariant over time? Investigating the nature of the Flynn Effect. Intelligence, 32, 509–537.
16. Jensen, A. R. (1980). Bias in mental testing. New York: Free Press.
17. Jensen, A. R. (1998). The g factor. Westport, CN: Praeger.
18. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. (2004). General mental ability in the world of work: Occupational attainment and job performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 162–173.
19. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1998). The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research findings. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 262–274.
20. Sackett, P. R., Kuncel, N. R., Arneson, J. J., Cooper, S. R., & Waters, S. D. (2009). Does socioeconomic status explain the relationship betweem admissions tests and post-secondary academic performance? Psychological Bulletin, 135, 1–22.

Wendy Johnson: „How Much Can We Boost IQ? Updated Look at Jensen’s (1969) Question and Answer“, in: Alan M. Slater & Paul C. Quinn (eds.) 2012. Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies. London: Sage Publications

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Psychological Theories
Slater I
Alan M. Slater
Paul C. Quinn
Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies London 2012

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