Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Expression: phrase, word, formula, or part of a formula. Below the level of sentences, therefore not true or false.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Nelson Goodman on Expressions - Dictionary of Arguments

I 25
Exemplification and expression/Goodman: exemplification and expression point in the same direction, which is exactly opposite to the denotation (name). (Denotation belongs more to saying and writing).
I 60
For the direct quote both are important: naming and including.
Each expression is a paraphrase of itself.
III 55ff
Definition "expressions"/Goodman: expressions are here the first reference to a sense or another property. Not to their presence! One can also express emotions that one does not have. Expression: an expression is e.g. a feeling. Representation: a representation is an object or event.
III 58
The gray image, does not denote the color gray, but is denoted by the predicate "gray".
III 59
Not every exemplification is expression but each expression is exemplification.
III 60
Definition exemplification: exemplification is ownership plus reference. (The ostension is missing reference.) >Reference.
III 61
A figure which exemplifies the triangularity, exemplifies not always a "three sided-ness"! Although it is three-sided. Also language dependent: "rouge" does not exemplify "red"!
III 88
Definition what is expressed: what is expressed, is exemplified metaphorically.
III 92
While almost everything can denote almost everything else or even represent, a thing can only express what belongs to it, but not what originally belonged to it (e.g. glue factory). Ultimately, it is a matter of habit.
III 94
Name a feature and express it are two different things. And a poem or a story does not need to express what he/she says, or to say what it expresses.
III 94
Def exemplification: exemplification relates the symbol to a description, which it denotes.
>Descriptions, >Symbols.
III 96
Def expression: the expression relates the symbol to a description which it denotes metaphorically and by that not only indirectly on the metaphorical but also onto the literal area of this label.
Conclusion: when a expresses b then:
1. a owns b or is denoted by it,
2. this possession or this denotation is metaphorical,
3. a refers to b.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

N. Goodman
Catherine Z. Elgin
Reconceptions in Philosophy and Other Arts and Sciences, Indianapolis 1988
German Edition:
Revisionen Frankfurt 1989

Goodman I
N. Goodman
Ways of Worldmaking, Indianapolis/Cambridge 1978
German Edition:
Weisen der Welterzeugung Frankfurt 1984

Goodman II
N. Goodman
Fact, Fiction and Forecast, New York 1982
German Edition:
Tatsache Fiktion Voraussage Frankfurt 1988

Goodman III
N. Goodman
Languages of Art. An Approach to a Theory of Symbols, Indianapolis 1976
German Edition:
Sprachen der Kunst Frankfurt 1997

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