Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Corr I 392
Culture/Theodore Schwartz/Saucier: For Schwartz, to define culture one must define its representation in individuals.
Def Idioverse/Schwartz: (Schwartz 1978)(1) the individual’s portion of his/her culture, an open system, subject to change . It can be more clearly defined as the total set of cognitive, evaluative and affective constructs – the schemas, or construals of (and rules and standards about) events, objects and persons (both self and others) – held by the individual. The idioverse (mindset) is an organizing system that generates regularities in thought, emotion and behaviour. It is a personality system.
Def Culture/Schwartz: a population of personalities, that is, of idioverses or mindsets. Personality is culture at the individual level, and culture is personality at an aggregated level. For Schwartz, culture includes all of the content of all of the idioverses of all individuals who participate in the culture. This may seem overly inclusive, but such a wide conception is necessary in order to account for cultural innovation. A single individual may develop a new ‘construct’ (e.g., self-esteem).
Corr I 393
If one does not include all of the contents of all of the idioverses (what Goodenough (1981)(2) calls the ‘cultural pool’) as somehow part of culture, these innovations seem to appear out of nowhere. >Culture/Goodenough.



1. Schwartz, T. 1978. Where is the culture? Personality as the distributive locus of culture, in G. D. Spindler (ed.), The making of psychological anthropology, pp. 419–41. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press
2. Goodenough, W. H. 1981. Culture, language, and society. Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin/Cummings


Gerard Saucier, „Semantic and linguistic aspects of personality“, in: Corr, Ph. J. & Matthews, G. (eds.) 2009. The Cambridge handbook of Personality Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press


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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Schwartz, Theodore
Corr I
Philip J. Corr
Gerald Matthews
The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology New York 2009

Corr II
Philip J. Corr (Ed.)
Personality and Individual Differences - Revisiting the classical studies Singapore, Washington DC, Melbourne 2018


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