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Openness/intelligence/Neurobiology: Openness/Intellect is the only >Big Five trait consistently positively associated with intelligence, and one study found it to be the only Big Five trait associated with performance on a battery of working memory and cognitive control tests (DeYoung, Peterson and Higgins 2005)(1), all of which had been validated through neuroimaging and brain lesion studies as indices of dorsolateral prefrontal cortical function.
Dopamine may be involved in Openness/Intellect (DeYoung, Peterson and Higgins 2005(1); Harris, Wright, Hayward et al. 2005(2)); dopamine strongly modulates the function of lateral prefrontal cortex (Arnsten and Robbins 2002(3)) and has been linked to individual differences in fluid intelligence and working memory through genomics, pharmacological manipulation and neuroimaging (e.g., Volkow 1998(4); Mattay, Goldberg, Fera et al. 2003(5)).
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Fluid intelligence and working memory seem to be related primarily to the aspect of Openness/Intellect that can be described as Intellect, whereas crystallized or verbal intelligence is associated not only with Intellect but also with the artistic and contemplative traits that characterize the Openness aspect of the domain (DeYoung, Peterson and Higgins 2005(1); DeYoung, Quilty and Peterson 2007)(6).
1. DeYoung, C. G., Peterson, J. B. and Higgins, D. M. 2002. Higher-order factors of the Big Five predict conformity: are there neuroses of health? Personality and Individual Differences 33: 533–52
2. Harris, S. E., Wright, A. F., Hayward, C., Starr, J. M., Whalley, L. J. and Deary, I. J. 2005. The functional COMT polymorphism, Val158Met, is associated with logical memory and the personality trait intellect/imagination in a cohort of healthy 79 year olds, Neuroscience Letters 385: 1–6
3. Arnsten, A. F. T. and Robbins, T. W. 2002. Neurochemical modulation of prefrontal cortical function, in D. T. Stuss and R. T. Knight (eds.), Principles of frontal lobe function, pp. 51–84. New York: Oxford University Press
4. Volkow, N. D., Gur, R. C., Wang, G.-J., Fowler, J. S., Moberg, P. J., Ding, Y.-S., Hitzemann, R., Smith, G. and Logan, J. 1998. Association between decline in brain dopamine activity with age and cognitive and motor impairment in healthy individuals, American Journal of Psychiatry 155: 344–9
5. Mattay, V. S., Goldberg, T. E., Fera, F., Hariri, A. R., Tessitore, A., Egan, M. F., Kolachana, B., Callicott, J. H. and Weinberger, D. R. 2003. Catechol O-methyltransferase val158-met genotype and individual variation in the brain response to amphetamine, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 100: 6186–91
6. DeYoung, C. G., Quilty, L. C. and Peterson, J. B. 2007. Between facets and domains: ten aspects of the Big Five, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 93: 880–96
Colin G. DeYoung and Jeremy R. Gray, „ Personality neuroscience: explaining individual differences in affect, behaviour and cognition“, in: Corr, Ph. J. & Matthews, G. (eds.) 2009. The Cambridge handbook of Personality Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Philip J. Corr
The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology New York 2009
Philip J. Corr (Ed.)
Personality and Individual Differences - Revisiting the classical studies Singapore, Washington DC, Melbourne 2018