Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Corr I 280
Conscientiousness/animals/ethology/Gosling: [in animal studies] some dimensions showed less cross-species generality. Chimpanzees were the only non-human species with a separate Conscientiousness factor, which was defined more narrowly than in humans but included the lack of attention and goal-directedness and erratic, unpredictable and disorganized behaviour typical of the low pole. The existence of a separate Conscientiousness factor in only humans and their closest relative suggests that the trait evolved relatively recently in the evolution of Homininae (Gosling and Graybeal 2007)(1).The finding is consistent with the fact that both humans and chimpanzees have relatively developed frontal
Corr I 281
cortices, the area of the brain associated with higher executive function like making plans and controlling impulses (Beer, Shimamura and Knight 2004)(2).

1. Gosling, S. D. and Graybeal, A. 2007. Tree thinking: a new paradigm for integrating comparative data in psychology, Journal of General Psychology 134: 259–77
2. Beer, J. S., Shimamura, A. P. and Knight, R. T. 2004. Frontal lobe contributions to executive control of cognitive and social behaviour, in M. S. Gazzaniga (ed.) The cognitive neurosciences III, pp. 1091–04. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press

Samuel D. Gosling and B. Austin Harley, „Animal models of personality and cross-species comparisons“, in: Corr, Ph. J. & Matthews, G. (eds.)2009. The Cambridge handbook of Personality Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Corr I
Philip J. Corr
Gerald Matthews
The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology New York 2009

Corr II
Philip J. Corr (Ed.)
Personality and Individual Differences - Revisiting the classical studies Singapore, Washington DC, Melbourne 2018

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