|Understanding: the ability to give reasons for a distinction or to justify a selection of options. See also actions, meaning, knowledge._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
|Upton I 53
Understanding/Objects/Developmental Psychology/Upton: substages of the sensorimotor stage of development:
Upton, Penney. Developmental Psychology (Critical Thinking in Psychology Series) (p. 54). Learning Matters. Kindle Edition.
1. Reflex schemas (0–6 weeks):
Involuntary responses to stimuli, e.g., sucking. – No attempt to locate objects that have disappeared.
2. Primary circular reactions (6 weeks–4 months):
Attempts to repeat chance pleasurable actions, on or near the body, e.g. bringing thumb to mouth. - No attempt to locate objects that have disappeared
2. Secondary circular reactions (4–8 months):
Attempts to repeat chance pleasurable actions in the environment, e.g. hitting a mobile, picking up a cup - Begins to search for objects that are partially hidden.
4. Coordinated secondary circular reactions (8–12 months):
Can put ‘secondary circular reactions’ together to solve new problems, e.g. uncover, then grasp - Searches for completely hidden objects – but makes the A-not-B error
5. Tertiary circular reactions (12–18 months):
Will deliberately vary an action pattern, to discover the consequences, e.g. dropping ball from different heights - Can follow visible displacements of an object
6. Beginnings of symbolic representation (18–24 months):
Can solve problems using representation, e.g. opening and closing mouth - Can follow invisible displacements of an object._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Developmental Psychology 2011