Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Science: Science is a systematic process of acquiring knowledge about the natural world through observation, experimentation, and hypothesis testing. It is based on the assumption that the universe is governed by natural laws that can be discovered through scientific inquiry. See also Method, Review, Knowledge, Verification, Confirmation.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Robert K. Merton on Science - Dictionary of Arguments

Surowiecki I 224
Science/Surowiecki: the reward for scientists consists in attracting attention from colleagues.
Science/Merton: In science, private property is founded on giving away one's substance."(1)
Surowiecki I 226
Merton: Thesis: There is no such thing as a scientific truth in which only one person believes and which is questioned by the rest of the scientific community. A thought only becomes truth when it is accepted by a large majority of scientists. (...) This is meant by the term "contribution to science": it is always provisional (...).(2)
, >Minority, Cf. >Truth.
Surowiecki I 228
Matthew-Effect/Terminology/Merton/Surowiecki: (in allusion to the verses of the Gospel of Matthew, "Who has, is given to him"): most scientific treatises find hardly any readers, while a small part of them delight many readers. Famous scientists are quoted considerably more often. When a famous scientist collaborates with others, he is attributed a greater share of the result. When two teams or two scientists make a discovery at the same time, the more famous of them are credited with their achievements.
>Fame, >Glory.
Surowiecki: the Matthew-Effect can be understood as a heuristic process: it serves as a sieve to channel the immense flow of information.

1. Robert K. Merton, »The Matthew Effect«, Science 159/1968), S. 56-63.
2. Robert K. Merton, »The Matthew Effect (II) – Cumulative Advantage and the Symbolism of Intellectual Property«, Property«, Isis 79/1988, S. 606-623.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

SocMerton I
Robert K. Merton
Social Theory and Social Structure New York 1968

Surowi I
James Surowiecki
Die Weisheit der Vielen: Warum Gruppen klüger sind als Einzelne und wie wir das kollektive Wissen für unser wirtschaftliches, soziales und politisches Handeln nutzen können München 2005

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