Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Education: Education is the process of acquiring knowledge, skills, and values. It helps us to understand the world around us and to make informed decisions. See also Knowledge, Second Nature.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

G.W.F. Hegel on Education - Dictionary of Arguments

Gadamer I 17
Education/Hegel/Gadamer: In fact, Hegel has most sharply emphasized what education is. We follow him first(1). He has also seen that philosophy "has the condition of its existence in education", and we add: with it the humanities. For the existence of the spirit is intrinsically linked to the idea of education. Man is characterized by the break with the immediate and natural, which is expected of him by the spiritual, rational side of his being. "According to this side he is not by nature what he should be" - and therefore he needs education. What Hegel called the formal nature of
Gadamer I 18
education is based on its generality. From the concept of an elevation to the general public, Hegel is able to understand uniformly what his time understood by education.
Generality/Hegel/Gadamer: It is the general nature of human education to make itself a general spiritual being. Whoever abandons himself to particularity is uneducated, e.g. whoever gives in to his blind anger without measure or proportion..
Abstraction/Hegel: Hegel shows that such a person basically lacks the power of abstraction: he cannot disregard himself and look at a general from which his particularity is determined by measure and proportion.
Work on consciousness: In the "Phenomenology of the Spirit" Hegel develops the genesis of a really "in and of itself" free self-consciousness and shows that the essence of work is to form the thing instead of consuming it(2).
Gadamer I 19
Theoretical and practical education/Hegel: Already in [Hegel's] description of practical education one recognizes the basic determination of the historical spirit: to reconcile with oneself, to recognize oneself in being different. It becomes completely clear in the idea of theoretical education. For theoretical behaviour as such is already alienation, namely the imposition of "dealing with something that is not immediate, something alien, with something belonging to memory, remembrance and thinking".
Theoretical education thus leads beyond what man knows and experiences directly. It consists in learning to accept other things and to find general points of view in order to grasp the matter, "the objective in its freedom" and without selfish interest(3).
Basic idea/Gadamer: To recognize one's own in the unknown, to become at home in it, is the basic movement of the spirit, whose being is only a return to oneself
Gadamer I 20
from being different.

1. Hegel, Philosophische Propädeutik, S41—45. [Vgl. inzwischen die Textsammlung
von J. -E. Pleines, Bildungstheorien. Probleme und Positionen. Freiburg 1978.]
2. Hegel, Phänomenologie des Geistes (Phil. Bibl. 114), ed. Hoffmeister, S. 148ff.
3. Hegel XVIII, S. 62.

- - -
Mause I 47
Education/Hegel: the Republican identification of the citizen with the political community takes place through institutionally secured processes of "education" (1), in which citizens gain the ability to look beyond the limits of their private interests and to recognize themselves as parts of a moral whole.
The education from bourgeois to citoyen takes place (...) through the competence to change perspective acquired gradually and in a reflexive way in different interaction and socialisation contexts. An important role in this is played by
I 48
the institution of the 'corporation', still treated by Hegel in the context of 'civil society', together with the 'police' (2): professional associations in which the market participant experiences - beyond concrete profit orientation - recognition and solidarity by fellow professionals and thus a social integration still in the sphere of the 'bourgeois society', which enables him to cross the horizon of selfish pursuit of interests and thereby prepares him for his civic role.
>Bourgeois/Citoyen, >Citizenship, >State, >Community, >Society.

1. G.W.F. Hegel, Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts oder Naturrecht und Staatswissenschaft im Grundrisse. Werke 7, Hrsg. Eva Moldenhauer und Karl Markus Michel, Frankfurt a. M. 1989, S. 343-345.
2. Ibid. p. 382, 393-398.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Gadamer I
Hans-Georg Gadamer
Wahrheit und Methode. Grundzüge einer philosophischen Hermeneutik 7. durchgesehene Auflage Tübingen 1960/2010

Gadamer II
H. G. Gadamer
The Relevance of the Beautiful, London 1986
German Edition:
Die Aktualität des Schönen: Kunst als Spiel, Symbol und Fest Stuttgart 1977

Mause I
Karsten Mause
Christian Müller
Klaus Schubert,
Politik und Wirtschaft: Ein integratives Kompendium Wiesbaden 2018

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