Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Value judgment: A value judgment is a judgment about whether a positive or negative attribute should be ascribed to a statement or thing. Value judgments have nothing to do with subjectivity, but differ from judgments about the truth of statements or judgments about the pecuniary value of a thing. See also values, judgments.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

John Rawls on Value Judgments - Dictionary of Arguments

I 404
Value judgements/Rawls: this may be primarily concerned with whether value judgements represent a descriptive or prescriptive use of language. Unfortunately, the terms prescriptive and descriptive are unclear(1)(2)(3).
I 405
All sides seem to agree, that "good" and "bad" are typically used to give advice, to praise, to exalt, etc. Expressions can also occur in questions, commands, or condition sets.
Problem: when applied to different objects, they mean different things.
Descriptive theories of good/Rawls: descriptive theories of good are those, which a) assume that the expression "good" has a constant meaning, even in different applications. This is the only way to understand why the criteria for application can change from case to case.
b) assume that "good" is needed to give advice or recommendation(4). The interpretation of goodness as rationality corresponds to a descriptive theory.

(1) See J. R. Searle "Meaning and Speech Acts", Philosophical Review, vol. 71 (1962).
(2) J R. Searle Meaning and Speech Acts (Cambridge, 1969), ch. VI.
(4) P. Ziff, Semantic Analysis, (Ithaca, NY, 1960), ch. VI.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Rawl I
J. Rawls
A Theory of Justice: Original Edition Oxford 2005

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