|Singer I 231
Climate change/responsibility/individual/Singer, P.: what can I do as an individual? If I change my own behaviour, I can reduce the emission of greenhouse gases astonishingly far. However, this makes no measurable difference on a global scale. But if everyone did it, the effect would be measurable. Then it seems obvious that it is wrong for me personally not to abide by it.
Question: How about if I orientate my behaviour towards that of other individuals and behave badly, as long as not too many others behave badly as well?
Consequentialism: on this question, there is a difference between consequentialists and non-consequentialists.
Rule Utilitarianism: would say: the best rule for the individual is not to commit any violation or to accept any damage to the community, even if it is not immediately measurable.
Utilitarianism/David Lyons: (D. Lyons, Forms and Limits of Utilitarianism, Oxford, 1965.): Thesis: In such cases, Rule Utilitarianism coincides with Action Utilitarianism. Both welcome and reject the same solutions.
R. M. Hare: claims the same with reference to Kant's appeal to the idea of a universal right (> categorical imperative) and argues that this principle leads to utilitarianism. (R. M. Hare,"Could Kant have been a Utilitarian?" Utilitas 5 (1993), pp. 1-16).
Brad Hooker: (B. Hooker, Ideal Code, Real World (Oxford, 2000)): Hooker argues for a version of rule utilitarianism that prevents rules from becoming too complicated. He believes that we are acting wrongly when we break a rule that is part of a set of rules that, if internalised by an overwhelming majority of the population, would have the best consequences. If the rules became too complex, people would find it hard to internalize them. The cost of educating people would be too high. See also Responsibility/Parfit, Responsibility/Ethics/Glover, J.)_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Ideal Code, Real World: A Rule-Consequentialist Theory of Morality Oxford 2003
Practical Ethics (Third Edition) Cambridge 2011
The Most Good You Can Do: How Effective Altruism is Changing Ideas About Living Ethically. New Haven 2015