|Phonemes: are linguistically interpreted sounds, which are combined respectively for a language in a system and which have the potential to change the meaning of a larger phonetic unit in which they occur. E.g. red/dead. As pure sound events, these smallest sound units are called phones._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
John Lyons on Phonemes - Dictionary of Arguments
Consonant Shift/Rasmus Rask/Lyons: between Indo-European languages: Example f where Latin or Greek had p, e.g. p instead of b, e.g. th instead of t.
Loud/Language/Realization/Arbitrariness/Lyons: as long as the differences remain, nothing changes if a language would be realized phonetically or graphically differently.
N.B.: any word that is differentiated under the normal conventions of English will also be differentiated under the new conventions. The language itself is not affected by the change of substantial realisation.
Phoneme/Sound/Writing/Language/Lyons: the phonic substance has priority. There are limits to the pronunciation and audibility of certain sound groups.
Sound/Linguistics/Lyons: is ambiguous:
a) As physically different, without knowing which language they belong to. (phonetic, phonetics)
b) functionally differentiating within a language. (functional meaning). This is about the purpose of communication. (phonology, phonological).
This also leads to the distinction between speech sound and phoneme.
Def Phonology/Linguistics/Lyons: concerns the functional side of sound differentiations (purpose of communication, sound differences within a language, not physically understood).
Def Phonetics/Linguistics/Lyons: here it concerns purely physically detectable or producible differences of sounds, independently of a language. Independent of possible communication.
Def Speech sound/linguistics/Lyons: is any phonetically (physically) unique sound unit. There are practically infinitely many different speech sounds.
There are "wide" and "narrow" transcriptions here and intermediate stages.
Example English: brighter and darker L-sound: bright. in front of vowels: Example "leaf"
Dark: at the end and in front of consonants: Example "field".
Def Phoneme/Linguistics/Lyons: is the sound, if it is used functionally (not purely physically) to distinguish between different words.
Def Allophone/Linguistics/Lyons: phonetically distinguishable sound pairs as position variants of the same phoneme.
Sound: Unit of phonetic (physical) description. (phonetics).
Phoneme: Unit of the phonological ((s) meaning-differentiating) description. (phonology).
Phonetics: there are acoustic, auditory and articulatory phonetics.
Syntagmatic/Phoneme/Lyons: "horizontal" dimension.
Between phonemes it describes the combinability. This is the set of possible words that goes beyond the "real" words.
Phonemes/Distinction/Feature/Linguistics/Lyons: a) articulatory features: (labial, velar, dental, voiced, nasal) here it is a question of presence or absence (0, 1).
b) Distinctive features: this is about the difference they make by distinguishing different words from each other. Not all distinguishable features lead to a distinction between words. ((s) Some words can be pronounced differently).
Correspondingly, there are "functional" and "non-functional" values.
Advantage: in this way we can simplify restrictions in the distribution of certain phoneme classes. For example, there are many English words that start with /sp/, /sk/ or /St/, but none that begin with /sb/, /sg/ or /sd/. Certainly this is not a coincidental coincidence of the combinatorial properties of /p/, /k/ and /t/ on the one hand and /b/, /g/ and /d/ on the other. Here we do not have to describe six independent facts, but only one: "In the context of /s-/ the distinction voice/voiceless is not functional"._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Semantics Cambridge, MA 1977
Introduction to Theoretical Lingustics, Cambridge/MA 1968
Einführung in die moderne Linguistik München 1995